1.0 IntroductionThe solar energy use can alter part of the hydro electric energy, and the solar energy has advantage of the low cost and low pollution. The project will design a photovoltaic system on the Seneca College roof to reduce energy cost at Seneca College. This report will calculate and analyze the photovoltaic system power output to determine how many cost can be savedThis report will not focused on the pollution which is from solar panel material manufacturing process. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this report is to propose the reduction of energy costs at Seneca College energy cost by design photovoltaic system. As solar energy has low cost,using solar energy to replace part of the hydro electric supply will be a workable plan.1.2 Scope The solar panel materials can be obtained in Ontario. The solar panel will be built on the roof of Seneca College Newnham Campus building A for reducing the energy cost and the environmental pollution. This solution can be used at other institutes which need a lot of electricity to keep the school activities going on . The report will not focus on the pollution caused by the solar panel material manufacturing process due to the less knowledge to research on this topic. The report will mainly focus on the design of the solar panels. The report will explain how the design of the solar panels reduce energy cost and environmental pollution. 1.3 Rational: The reason of writing the report is to popularize the use of solar panel. Non-renewable energy resource will be exhausted in the future, but human still focus on the non-renewable energy resource exploiting. If solar panels will be installed in the most of the buildings in Ontario , the good result will be solar panels can produce a lot of electric energy based on the low-lost, non-pollution. The popularization of solar panel also will reduce the reliance on non-renewable energy resource. The relevance of this topic is to reduce the energy cost at Seneca college building A by designing solar panels.2.0 The Photovoltaic System Design The photovoltaic system is composed by solar panel, battery, inverter, and charge control. The solar panel receive the solar energy from the sunlight. The battery can store the electrical energy. The inverter convert the electrical energy current,and the direct current(DC) is changed to the alternating current(AC) before storing in the battery(Balfour,Shaw,& Nash 2013).The charge controllers prevent batteries discharging too deeply(Balfour,Shaw,& Nash 2013). 2.1 Solar Panel 2.1.1 Photovoltaic Cell Selection 2.1.2 Frame Kit Selection 2.2 Battery 2.2.1 Battery size selection 2.3 Inverter 2.3.1 Inverter size selection 2.4 Charge controller 2.4.1 Charge controller size selection 3.0 The Photovoltaic System Loss Analysis The photovoltaic system energy loss can be divided 2 part. The first part(between the sun and the solar panel) is how much percent the solar energy will be lost when storing in the solar panel. photovoltaic efficiency can be calculated by using the solar panel surface area, incident radiation and photovoltaic system output power. When the photovoltaic efficiency has been calculated ,use 1 minus the photovoltaic efficiency to get first part loss percentThe second part loss (between the solar panel and the electricity equipment)is how many percent electricity energy will lost before using in the electricity equipment. In the second part, the loss factors include the soiling losses, shading losses, sun-tracking loss.DC wiring and match losses (Maghami,Hizam,Gomes,Radzi,Rezadad ,& Hajihorbani 2016). 3.1 Photovoltaic system loss ( From the sun to the solar panel) 3.1.1 Photovoltaic System Power Selection 3.1.2 Panel Surface Area Calculation 3.1.3 Incident Radiation Selection 3.1.4 Photovoltaic System Efficiency Calculation 3.1.5 Electricity Energy Calculation (Energy In The Solar Panel) 3. 2 Photovoltaic System Loss ( From the solar panel to the electricity equipment) 3.2.1 Soiling Losses Value Choice 3.2.2 Shading Losses Value Choice 3.2.3 Sun-Tracking Loss Value Choice 3.2.4 DC Wiring Loss Value Choice 3.2.5 Mismatch Losses Value Choice 3.2.6 Photovoltaic System Loss Calculation 4.0 The Photovoltaic System Cost CalculationThe photovoltaic system cost includes the interconnection, balance of System(cabling,combiner boxes), inverters , and the solar panel.The photovoltaic system design cost doesn’t include insurance cost( FIT PRICE REVIEW,2015). The cost value unit is watt per Canadian dollar. The FIT PRICE REPORT cost is as a reference value, so the photovoltaic system cost (Canadian dollar per watt)is designed to closely the FIT PRICE REPORT value. Only the PV modules will be designed, and other components will be bought in the Toronto. 4.1 The Interconnection Cost4.2 Balance Of System Cost4.3 Inverters Cost4.4 The Solar Panel Cost4.5 The Toal Cost5.0 The Benefit Of Design Photovoltaic System At Seneca College Building A RoofThe electricity energy output (KWH) which is produced by the photovoltaic system will be converted into economical value. How much money for the electricity energy if the electricity energy is produced by theToronto power pant. The Solar energy can emit lesser CO2 when comparing with non-renewable energy. 5.1 Economical Benefit 5.1.3 Toronto Power Plant Electricity Price Statistics 5.1.2 The Economic Benefit Per Year 5.1.3 The Time Of The Recovering Cost5.2 Environmental Benefit6.0 Conclusion The photovoltaic system will be expected to effective work for 20 years, and the design cost can be recovered in the fifth year based on the normal condition. The photovoltaic system will provide 20 percent power supply for Seneca building A. If some unexpected situations happen, some adverse climates will cause damaged for the photovoltaic system. The photovoltaic system life and output will be reduced.References/Works Cited: Maghami, Hizam, Gomes, Radzi, Rezadad, & Hajighorbani. (2016). Power loss due to soiling on solar panel: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1307-1316.Balfour, John, Shaw, Michael, & Nash, Nicole Bremer. (2013). Advanced photovoltaic system design (The art and science of photovoltaics Advanced photovoltaic system design).Canadian Solar Industries Association.(August 14,2015) 2016 FIT Price Review Submission to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) December 17,2017 from http://www.cansia.ca/uploads/7/2/5/1/72513707/cansia_submission_-_2016_price_review.pdfWorks to be Consulted:Salameh, Z. (2014). Renewable energy system design.Deambi, S. (2016). Photovoltaic System Design. CRC Press.