1.1 Describe how a range of factors have a negative and positive impact on individuals withsensory lossThere are many factors that can have a negative or positive impact on individuals with sensoryloss. Many of the things that can impact individuals with sensory loss can seem subtle, orperhaps not as obvious to those without sensory loss, but can have a great impact on howindividuals with sensory loss interact with the world and other people.An important thing to consider when supporting individuals with sensory loss is how theywould communicate. For those with sight loss, things such as facial expressions, handgestures and body language may be harder to read, as well as whether the person who istalking is moving around as they speak. These may make it harder for the individual tounderstand others. For individuals with hearing loss, background noise can play an importantpart in how well they are able to understand others, so the less background noise there is, theclearer an individual can communicate. An individual with hearing loss may also find it harderto understand someone if they are not facing them as the individual may need to lip read orsee facial expression to understand others more clearly.For individuals who are deafblind, they may find it hard to understand both visual and audiblecommunication and may rely a lot more on touch for their communication, so objects ofreference should be used to communicate clearly. Without being able to communicate withothers clearly, people with sensory loss can become more isolated if communication withothers becomes too difficult to maintain, which can then have a detrimental effect on theirlives overall. Conversely, when an individual is surrounded by others who understand and canutilise and individual’s preferred method of communication, that individual is able to be moresocial and independent. They would be more able to maintain connections with family andfriends, and will be able to live more fulfilled lives.Information in general may be harder for people with sensory loss to access as so muchinformation is conveyed through text, whether on the phone, on a computer screen, in printor on signs, and similarly a lot of information can be conveyed audibly, such as via atelephone, or being able to hear the radio. Without appropriate access to information,individuals with sensory loss might lose some of their independence and autonomy and mayhave to rely on others to convey information to them. Because of this, it is very important thatindividuals with sensory loss have access to information in a way that is suitable to them sothat they are able to fully understand what is happening and can make more informedchoices and live their life in a way that is more tailored to them.Individuals may also struggle to maintain their mobility if their environment is unsuitable forthem. For instance, if there is inappropriate lighting, not enough physical aids or changes inthe layout of a room, an individual with sight loss may find it hard to navigate even familiarplaces. Without adequate sign posting, clear indication of where furniture and cupboards areor in cluttered environments, an individual with sight loss may struggle to navigate unfamiliarplaces. Similarly, for individuals with hearing loss, directions can become harder to follow.Because of this, individuals may become less mobile, which can have a big impact on theirindependence, their sense of security and their freedom.If an individual’s environment and aids are suited to their needs, they can become moreindependent and more social, which can also lead to them being able to be more physicallyactive and having more autonomy in their lives, which could have further health benefits forthem.Someone with sensory loss may be negatively impacted upon if they are supported by otherswith a lack of knowledge or understanding of how sensory loss can affect someone and whatissues may arise from their sensory loss. Or an individual could be supported by others whohave a less person-centred approach to the support they offer. In these cases, the individual isless likely to receive appropriate support and their sensory loss may further develop orworsen if their symptoms and behaviour are ignored, not noticed or perceived as simply aanother part of a pre-existing condition.Individuals with sensory loss can also be positively impacted if their supportive team andenvironment are more suited to their needs. This may be by support staff being aware of theeffects and signs of sensory loss, so the individual gets prompt support which may lead to amore accurate diagnosis or a significant decrease in the rate in which their sensory lossworsens. Further positive effects could be through an individual’s support team having amore person-centred approach and an understanding of how sensory loss can affect anindividual’s behaviour, which means they can then respond appropriately and put in placesuitable support systems and aids.1.2 Identify steps that can be taken to overcome factors that have a negative impact onindividuals with sensory lossTo overcome factors that can have a negative impact on someone with sensory loss, thefollowing steps could be taken:- Being aware of an individual’s sensory issues, noticing any changes and being aware thatthese these changes may signify a change in an individual’s sensory needs.- Offering appropriate support should an individual need to be assessed or treated for theirsensory loss.- Ensuring the individual with sensory loss has access to regular sight or hearing tests tomaintain their sensory abilities, as well as ensuring they are able to use any aids (such asprescription glasses) that they are given.- Ensuring all support staff are appropriately trained and in order to communicate with anindividual in a way that suits their sensory needs.- Adapting an individual’s environment to be suitable for them, including appropriate layoutand sensory aids wherever needed so the individual can be as independent as possible intheir own home or other living environments.- Becoming aware of how to support an individual to continue their daily living tasks andmaintaining any aids or environmental factors, as well as keeping them informed of anyservices which may be of benefit to them in their community.1.3 Explain how individuals with sensory loss can be disabled by attitudes and beliefsIndividuals with sensory loss may be disabled by the attitudes and beliefs of others, as well asby themselves. Individuals may be very used to their current circumstances or believe thatthey may not be able to change the way they do things, such as learning new skills or usingnew equipment such as more modern aids. Because of this, they may not gain access tothings which may have a positive impact on their lives.Individuals may also fear becoming more independent and what they would then need to do,or becoming more dependent on others. This may be because they don’t want to be the oddone out, feel like a burden on others or because it could be difficult to admit the extent oftheir conditions.Individuals may also be affected by the attitudes and beliefs of others if those people see theindividual as too old or too disabled to change. Other people, such as support staff, couldalso not want to change their own routines by doing the things that could support anindividual with sensory loss.If support staff are unwilling to learn new skills or manage new aids and equipment, or if theyfeel it would be too difficult to do new things that may support an individual with sensory loss,this could then disable the individual and prevent them from being more independent.1.4 Identify steps that could be taken to overcome disabling attitudes and beliefsSteps that could be taken to overcome disabling attitudes and beliefs include:- Leading with a positive attitude about what can be achieved, possibly using examples ofother individuals who newer approaches have worked for, while not pressuring or rushinganyone into new kinds of support.- Being clear with individuals on what kind of support is available while allowing them tomake their own choices on what kind of support they want.- If an individual is expressing beliefs that they cannot change their circumstances, gentlyoffer alternative possibilities, while respecting the rights of the individual to maintain theirbeliefs.- Offer lots of encouragement and support if an individual chooses to engage with a new typeof support.- Being vigilant to and challenging any disablist or other discriminatory attitude in supportstaff, including any generalisations and assumptions.- Ensuring all training is done on how to support people with sensory loss as well as how tosupport individuals in a person-centred way.