1) Astrology is not considered a science as it does not have explanatory power to describe the universe. Science requires following strict principles known as scientific method but astrology does not follow this method. Astrology is a matter of chance; if it would be science, we could get the precise, accurate and specific information. According to Popper’s criticism on naive empiricist astrology is a pseudo-empirical, it can be experimented and observed but it does not conforming to scientific standards.
3) Let me give an overview of research process in my understanding: firstly, we need to identify research topic what I want to find about. Then, we define the research problem and set the research question. We already know what is known about this topic but what remains to be known?! Therefore, we try to define the relation that questions emerge with the topic of interest. At the next level, we try to determine how to conduct this research. It means, I need to find the way how to answer the questions. So, what information do I need to answer the questions – is the information collection level of research process. Information analysis and interpretation level is what I managed to find by using methods, tools and techniques to collect and analyze information. At the end, I write my research paper in the form of report, journal, article, thesis or dissertation. I need to summarize the information I found in the applicable for me form.
4) Karl Popper is the prominent proponent of the theory-then-research strategy. He claims that there is a progress in science when conjectures are produced first and then disprove them through empirical research. This means that our research is guided by our theoretical proposition. Data should be collected so that theory can be tested. While the proponent of research-then-theory strategy, Robert Merton argues that this strategy creates new problem for theory that constructs new theoretical formulations which means that through piecing together the explanation and understanding, we make up a theory.
5) An ecological fallacy is an assumption of those relationships apply at a group level also apply at an individual level. For example. My friend is from Japan. He is the most intelligent person I have ever seen. This means people from Japan tend to be highly intelligent but that does not mean that everyone from Japan is intelligent. He does not seem intelligent just because he is from Japan.
6) A relationship observed between two variables that is not consequence of any direct relationship but is incorrectly appeared to be related to each other due to the role of third variable, the fact is called a spurious relationship. For example: if we take Asian Americans, 60% of people between 25 and 29 have already completed college. While the rate of white people is 40%, the rate of black people is much less just 23%. While looking at this picture, we can consider that race has an impact on educational attainment. This is an example of spurious relationship where race does not have an effect but it is racism that mediates the relationship between two variables.
11) Confidence interval is the amount of uncertainty a sample population estimate (the mean or proportion) of a true population. If we want to determine the average age of victims of robbery in Azerbaijan, we can say 30 years old. However, the best is to define interval of true answer that lays in 20-40 years old. The Confidence interval is a sample mean or proportion plus or minus to calculate upper limit and lower limit of sample statistics. In this case, upper limit is 40, lower limit is 20. Before calculating, we should choose either 90%, 95% or 99% of confidence level. This is amount of uncertainty. The true population will be presented in 90%, 95% or 99% of all sample estimated CI. it also means that 10%, 5% or 1% would not contain true population score. Then we keep going to calculate CI by using mean.
12) Longitudinal study is a research design that deals with the collection and analysis of data over period of time. Longitudinal research design tracks the same variables that are growing, developing or changing over long or short period of time. for instance. For example: If we experiment changes for George W. Bush on the pre and post 2000 election surveys and the pre and post 2002 election surveys. The question is: how respondents felt toward George W. Bush as a result of the election?
13) Validity and reliability are the most important elements of quality of test. Validity is about providing strong evidence: what do we measure? Are we measuring what we wish to measure? Reliability is repeatability and consistency of questions. What characteristics are measured and how well?
Questions are indicators, so we should ensure a variety of question types. They can be either open ended or multiple choices. If the questions are open ended it means they are more valid than reliable, on the contrary if they are multiple choices, it means they are more reliable than valid.
14) In order to transform concept of terrorism into a variable, we need to operationalize concept firstly, and go through the process of identifying indicators and then variables. In other words, we can transform concept into variables directly or through indicators. Concept of Terrorism is caused by many possible reasons. I am going to identify multiple indicators that cause a terrorism. Terrorism can be observed both in rich and poor countries regardless type of government. From my perspective, root causes of terrorism are economic factors (variables: social inequality, economic sanctions, unemployment), political factors (variables: government repression, human rights) and social factors (variables: human development, religion). Therefore, terrorism is dependent variable. We know more reasons that lead to terrorism than how terrorism influence on other factors.
15) It is hypothesized that battered/coerced women violence is accepted as a justification for self-defense in homicide cases over the past decade. In my hypothesis, it is the conjecture of the relationship between variables. It is valid because it is falsifiable and may undergo changes until research progresses.
18) Operationalization is part of the empirical research process. For example: how to measure rationality in international relations: Does rationality have an impact in international relations? The importance of conceptualism and their relationship are important. So, both concepts rationality and international relations are to be measured. Thus, empirical research question should be operationalized before the data collection.