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1.9. Definition of Key Significant Terms
Specifically, any individual or group that enters into a binding agreement to provide specified goods or services; in the context of this study, a contractor is a construction company which undertakes to build a specified project for an agreed price and within an agreed timescale.
The people who will directly benefit from a project. A team executes a project with
The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
Performance indicator(s):
A particular value or characteristic used to measure output or outcome. These are parameters useful for determining the degree to which an organization has achieved its goals. A quantifiable expression used to observe and track the status of a process. The operational information that is indicative of the performance or condition of a facility, group of facilities, or site.
Performance measurement:
A process of assessing progress toward achieving predetermined goals, including information on the efficiency with which resources are transformed into goods and services (outputs), the quality of those outputs (how well they are delivered to clients and the extent to which clients are satisfied) and outcomes (the results of a program activity compared to its intended purpose).

“A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside scope of the discrete projects in the program.” – PMBOK pg 368
Planned set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations.
Project Management:
Project management is defined as an “application of knowledge, skills and techniques to execute projects effectively and efficiently (Project Management Institute, 1996). Project management concentrates on the strategic competency for organizations, to enable them to measure project results towards achieving planned organizational goals. specific attention to a clients requirements.
Rural roads:
Rural roads primary function is to serve the needs of rural areas, sometimes linking those areas with the regional urban centers. Low traffic volumes are registered in the rural roads and they are usually simply constructed, graveled paved and without drainage. Rural roads are popular known as feeder routes in Africa.
1.10. Organization of the study
Chapter 1: Introduction
In this chapter the focus is on the following important aspects: Background of the study, statement of the problem, hypothesis, objectives, significance of the study, limitation of the study, research methodology, definition of concepts, as well as organization of the study.
Chapter 2: Literature review
This chapter provides attention on the history of road development in Ethiopia, theoretical review from different scholars, books, journals, articles, government documents and the internet, Empirical Evidence concerning the study as well as Conceptual frame work.
Chapter 3 : Research methodology
This chapter focuses on the research methodology that is used by the researcher when conducting the study. The chapter includes research design, data sources and types, data collection, target population, sampling design, sampling plan, sampling techniques, data analysis methods, tools and presentation. It has been also focused on validity and reliability of instruments and ethical issues.
Chapter 4: Presentation of results
This chapter presents the results obtained from the respondents by means of questionnaire from the sample provided. It also includes the demographic profile of respondents.
Chapter 5: Discussion of the result
This chapter discusses and interprets the findings obtained during the data collection and also contains the analysis of data and synthesis thereof.
Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendations
The main aim of this chapter is to report on findings and make recommendations. It also links the main findings with the objectives of the study.

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1. Bhakti Movement
A cult of love and devotion that ultimately sought to erase the distinction between Hinduism and Islam, emerged in southern India

2. Chola Kingdom
The Kingdom of the Chola was one of the two kingdoms the flourished in Southern India. It controlled the Coromandel four centuries from 850 – 1267 CE. At its high point it had ruled Ceylon and even parts of South-East Asia. Chola rulers allowed a considerable autonomy for local and village institutions so long as they did not stop paying taxes. The Chola Kingdom began to decline through internal revolts around the 12th century.

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3. Majapahit
It is the empire of 13th-16th C. central Java, rose in the wake of Mongol invasions. It was the biggest and most powerful SE Asian island state in history. It controlled almost all of what is today Indonesia. It was golden age of Java culture.

4. Gupta dynasty
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire that was founded in 320 CE and survived until about 550 CE. The Gupta Empire covered most of north and central India, as well as Bangladesh. It was known to be one of the most peaceful and wealthy civilizations of its time. it is the Indian History including developments in politics, economics, culture, social life, religion and art.

5. Irrigation systems
It is the system replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops.

6. Angkor kingdom
Southeast Asian Khmer kingdom that was centered on the temple cities of Ankor Thom and Angkor Wat.

7. Jati
It is the A sub caste, it refers to your profession and many in the same jati formed guilds

8. Melaka
The first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula.

9. Shiva
An important Hindu god who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer. Shiva was the God of fertility and destroyer. He bought life but took it away when its season had passed.

10. Mahmud of Ghazni
Islamic leader who raided throughout northern India, destroying Hindu and Buddhist temples. His many motive was money.

11. Ramanuja
Ramanuja, a devotee of Vishnu who was active during the 11th and early 12 th centuries c.e. He proclaimed the supremacy of Vishnu-Narayana and emphasizes that devotion to Vishnu will lead to ultimate liberation.

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