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1.1 Introduction

The aim of this paper is to discuss and analyze the cause and impact of locus of control personally and in the organization.
Locus of Control (LOC) is one of the important aspect of personality within psychology. The concept was developed originally Julian B. Rotter in the 1950s (Rotter, 1966), an American psychologist, as he defined LOC as “Generalized belief that a person can or cannot control his own destiny or a person’s perspective on the events whether he able to control behavior that happened to him or not.”

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1.2 Types of Locus of Control
There are mainly two types of basic Locus of Control (LOC) are Internal Locus of Control and External Locus and Control. People with Internal LOC believe that he or she can influence events and their outcomes, whereas people with External LOC blames outside forces for everything.
Internals tend to believe that every action they do has its own consequences, things happen depends on how they manage and want to control them.
Clear differences between External and Internal Locus of control can be seen as follows:
Those with an External Locus of Control Those with an Internal Locus of Control
• Mostly blames outer forces for their circumstances.
• They credit luck or chance for any successes.
• Tend to not believe that they can change their situation through their own efforts.
• Frequently feel hopeless or powerless in the face of difficult situations
• Are more prone to experiencing learned helplessness • Are more likely to take responsibility for their actions
• Tend to be less influenced by the opinions of other people
• Often do better at tasks when they are allowed to work at their own pace
• Usually, have a strong sense of self-efficacy
• Tend to work hard to achieve the things they want
• Feel confident in the face of challenges
• Tend to be physically healthier
• Report being happier and more independent.
• Often achieve greater success in the workplace
Another type of control that contains a mix of internal and external types is referred as Bi-locals. People who have Bi-local characteristics are known to be able to cope and handle their stress and diseases more efficiently. Also, they could take better personal responsibility of their actions and thus
1.3 Causes of Locus of Control
Main factors which heavily affect the development of Locus of control in people are education, age, cultural background, ethnicity, gender and health (mental and physical).
Education – more education generally leads to increases in internal locus of control.
This can be proofed by the statement cited by Kirkpatrick, Stant, & Downes, 2008, p. 486: “High scoring students identify effort and ability as causes of their success, whereas those performing poorly are more likely to cite test difficulty and bad luck as causes”.
And as cited in Grimes, Millea, & Woodruff, 2004, para. 8: “Students with internal locus of control are more likely to process information with “deep or strategic learning approaches”.

Age – Age has a strong relationship with locus of control.
Schieman S. (2001), determined that an individual’s locus of control morphs as they age: as an individual gets older, they lose their sense of control.
He suggests that retirement, widowing, and deteriorating health all contribute to a low sense of control, whereas education, marriage, financial satisfaction, and religious association can all help maintain an internal locus of control.

Cultural Background and Ethnicity – Both can also contribute to one’s locus of control, as Lefcourt pointed out in 1982 that,
“Minority groups who do not enjoy as much access to opportunity as do the predominant Caucasian groups in North American society, are often found to hold fatalistic, external control beliefs.”
Gender – Woman are less likely to posses an internal locus of control than men.
However, the gender gap in regards to locus of control is changing:
As according to Slagsvold, B. ; Sorensen, A. (2008), “As gender inequality in education and life chances decline, we should expect to see gender difference in sense of control to decline as well, because women’s and men’s life courses are converging.”

Health (Mental ; Physical) – There is also a direct relationship between an individual’s locus of control and their health, both mental and physical.
A study determined that college students who experience “Severe stress make more behavioral attributions to chance,” meaning they possess an external locus of control. Overall, those with an external locus of control have a more difficult time dealing with stress, including the stress that develops as a result of deteriorating health, which can then lead to worsening health conditions (Lefcourt, 1982, p. 103).

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In spectrum sensing, hypothesis testing is widely used to test the sensing result for the presence of PUs to efficiently utilize the spectrum. We first explain binary hypothesis. In Binary hypothesis testing it sense either 0 or 1, 0 represents PU is not available and 1 represent PU available. It is widely used when parameters are known so, it requires also prior knowledge of known parameters. Based on fixed number of samples which means it has fixed sensing time. Binary hypothesis are further divided into two types.
? Neyman-Pearson test

In Neyman Pearson (NP) test, objective is to maximize the detection probability (Pd) than false alarm probability (Pf) which means Pd is always greater than Pf. LRT (likelihood Ratio test) is equivalent to NP test which shown below;

f (y|H1)
NP= __________

f (y|H0)

If NP > ? it represents H1 (PU available), otherwise H0 (PU isn’t available).

? Bayes test

In Bayes test, objective is to minimize the expected cost called Bayes Risk. Used to reduce the sum of all probabilities cost from probabilities of two incorrect decision cases.

Miss detection represented by P (H0 | H1)
False alarm represented by P (H1 | H0)
Probability detection represented by P (H1 | H1)

So, the Fusion Center minimize the Bayes risk by declaring H1 and H0 conditions.

As we mentioned above, Binary hypothesis testing is used when both hypotheses are known. In Composite hypothesis testing, it is widely used when there are unknown parameters in PDF’s. It doesn’t require prior knowledge of unknown parameters which is also called GLRT. The method which is commonly used to find the unknown parameters is by MLE (Maximum likelihood ratio). GLRT methodology is used because of its robustness and it is easy to implement.
? Another test, which is Rao test is typically used to detect the weak PUs at Fusion center. By the help of data fusion type (i.e. soft decision). Rao test is generally same like GLRT but doesn’t require MLE for unknown parameters.

? Another test, is linear test comes under Composite hypothesis testing is Linear test statistics, which is used to finding the unknown PUs as well as unknown channels .

? Third one is Statistic LMP detector is derived, when channel statistics are known. This model provides robustness to the interferences in Primary User signal also in channel gain. Also it is much reliable than NP- based LRT.
As previous hypotheses based on fixed number of samples and fixed sensing time, it is much different than both. Sequential testing is typically used to utilize spectrum by reducing sensing time, and requires variable number of samples. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is proposed by Wald, which minimizes the sensing time as per detection performance.
In SPRT, samples are taken in sequence and then compared with both thresholds ?0 and ?1.
?0 ?1, FC decides H1
If likelihood ratio < ?0, FC decides H0

When ratio falls between two thresholds, it takes again observations until and unless it achieve final decision. The pros of SPRT is it requires fewer samples, less energy consumption, to achieve same detection performance.

? Based on known parameters
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Sense Either 1 or 0
? Requires prior knowledge
? Easy to implement
? Less expensive

? Based on unknown parameters
? Determine unknown parameter by MLE
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Doesn’t require prior knowledge
? Robust , easy to design
? Reduce sensing time
? Less energy consumption
? Much complex
? Expensive
? Have two thresholds
? Better performance

? In coherent sensing technique, it need prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? Need reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Cyclostationary feature detection
• Matched filter detection

? In non- coherent sensing technique, it doesn’t need any prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? No need of reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Energy detection
• Wavelet detection
• Compressed sensing

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