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1. There are 7 layers in OSI network model and they are integral aspects of network as it gives us concepts and/or protocols on what they each layer does and becomes essential part of network trouble shooting.
Layer 7 (Application Layer) basically network specific applications (browsers, file transfer, mail and others)
Layer 6 (Presentation Layer) provides context or the communication. So compression of the data or encryption or decryption of the data happens here in this layer. It prepares the data from application layer for lower layers
Layer 5 (Session Layer) it is also known as handshaking layer as it creates dialog between computers. /it controls duplexing, termination and restarts.
Layers 7, 6 and 5 are also known as upper layer data. Layers 6 and layer 5 are considered to be a part of application layer. So the 7 layers of OSI model is considered somewhat obsolete but still in existence.
Layer 4 (Transport Layer) is also known as flow control as it provides protocol to transfer data such as TCP(reliable connections, when data needs to arrive securely/timely manner) and UDP (non-reliable connections, latency is issue and can be seen in VOIP). Data is called segments.
Layer 3 (Network Layer) is where routers are operated (so routing of packets happen in this layer) it provides connections to different networks through protocols such as IPv4 and IPv6. Data is called packets at this layer.
Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) is provides connection within same network. It should provide error-free and reliable transmission of data. Data is called frames at this layer
Layer 1 (Physical Layer) is where all the physical equipment (like hubs, cables, and others) are located. It transmits data through hardware, electrical and mechanical interfaces. Data is called bits at this layer.
Data flows through flow one end down through layer 7->6->5->4->3->2->1 and across physical layer and upward on the other end from 1->2->3->4->5->6->7.
Each layers have several protocols that it follows based on the need of communications. All Programmers Seems To Need Data Processing (Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical layer) easy to remember pneumonic.
2. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC (request for comments): 8147 (Next-Generation Pan-European eCall). Status of this RFC is already proposed Standard since May 2017. What is interesting about this is to look at the time line and see how many steps are involved and how many changes gets made to the standards before they are accepted for proposals or updated the outdated standards.
Next-Generation Pan-European eCall is basically setup of protocols that would support eCall (a standard and mandatory system for emergency calls made through vehocals) through IP based emergency services in the next generation of Pan-European vehicles and provides real-time data and communications.
It shows initiation in November 2013 from initial draft to multiple drafts and then submission to IETF in July 2014 and then several internal edits and changes (27 to be exact) and finally open for RFC on May 2017. Its fascinating and horrifying at the same time how long it takes to get something like this that’s is for safety protocols and making next-generation cars.

3. A 2-tier architecture is presentation layer than runs on client and data layer is stored on a server. Best Example of this is Bank ATM machines. (The interface where you can withdraw or deposit money is client and that information is getting stored and updated on the bank server and then getting response in terms of bank receipt is confirmation that the task was performed correctly. There are few real world applications as real world applications fast changing rules are not suitable for this and also limited number of users that can be connected at the same time to this architecture. It is great for users as it is accurate and offers best performance.
A 3-tier architecture is basically distributing processing across three computers (Client (presentation), Application server and database server). The best example of this is shopping on You start by accessing and looking over items to purchase (presentation layer). Once you find an item (application server) , it is confirming against amazon database for the price, availability and estimated shipping time (database server) and you get all that information presented to you in the cart, ready to order/purchase (presentation layer). This happens with every query of an item. It is great for performance, scalability and availability. It is secured as client do not interact with server directly. The problem with this layer is if the application layer is crashes or having issues you can no longer be able to access database.

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A N-tier architecture is 3 or more number of computers distributing processing powers. The information flow is linear (communication only takes place if they are on adjacent tiers). It can run powerful application; accessible by hundreds of users. It balances traffic better than any other architecture and it is always scalable. The bad part is it always has heavy traffic and really difficult to maintain and program. It is also complicated to design and also expensive

5. Cloud Computing (software application, data storage Architecture is cheaper and simpler than traditional client-server architecture. It is different because part or all of the infrastructure can be outsourced. It is distinguished in 3 models.
First, Software as a Service (SaaS) allows users to run existing software/applications over the internet. (Gmail, SalesForce, Microsoft Office 365 and others). Applications are either free or subscription based. Great for collaboration.
Second, Platform as a Service (PaaS) allows users to build and change their own cloud applications using vendor tools. It helps by renting infrastructure and then creating custom applications on those server like Microsoft Azure and some even allow those applications to run and hosted for free (google app enginge and
Third, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) allows users to run any software/applications on cloud hardware including storage and network servers. Using this type of infrastructure is low-cost, great for scalability and can be temporary or long-term, based on individual or business needs.
All 3 cloud models have different user accessibility and control, however it has changed how people interact online through those applications or through renting those services.

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Given Marine Band harmonica retail price was €30 which includes 33% margin, distributers price should be €30/1.33=€22.556 which 12% margin. Thus Hohner’s selling price =€22.556 /1.12=€20.140
Fixed Costs
A. Manufacturing fixed cost € 900,000.000
B. Advertising budget € 500,000.000
C. Salary € 35,000.000
Total Fixed Cost (A+B+C)t € 1,435,000.000

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Variable Costs
A. Manucturing variable cost € 2.700
B. Logistic € 0.600
C. Sales commission (10% of selling price) € 2.014
Total Variable Cost (A+B+C) € 5.314

The unit contribution is
Unit contribution _= Price/Variable cost €20.140 /€ 5.314=
€ 14.826
Unit contribution is € 14.826


Break even point = Tot fixed costs/ (price-variable costs) € 1,435,000/(€20.140-€ 5.314) = 96,792 units
Break even point is 96,792 units

Given that the total market is 800,000 units, the market share for Hohner at breakeven point is 96,792 units *100/ 800,000 = 12.099%
The market share Hohner needs to break even is 12.099%


Hohner’s market share is 75% of 800,000 so this year it sold 600,000 units.

Sold this year (75%*800,000) 600,000.000 units
Revenue (600,000 units* €20.140 price per unit) €12,083,780.881
Total Fixed Cost € 1,435,000.000
Tot Variable Cost € 5.314
Profit Revenue-(Total Fixed + Total Variable Cost*Unit Sold) € 7,460,402.793
Hohner’s profit is € 7,460,402.793


New Fixed Costs
D. Manufacturing fixed cost € 900,000.000
E. Advertising budget € 1,000,000.000
F. Salary € 35,000.000
Total Fixed Cost (A+B+C)t € 1,935,000.000

Variable Costs
D. Manucturing variable cost € 2.700
E. Logistic € 0.600
F. Sales commission (10% of selling price) € 2.014
Total Variable Cost (A+B+C) € 5.314

Break even point = Tot fixed costs/ (price-variable costs) € 1,935,000/(€20.140-€ 5.314) = 130,517 units

€ 7,460,402.793 = Total revenue – Total cost
= (€20.140*units) – € 1,935,000.000 – (€ 5.314*units) =
=;(€ 7,460,402.793+€ 1,935,000.000)/ (€20.140-€ 5.314) = 633,725.286 units
Hohner to achieve the same profit must sell 633,725.286 units


For the profit to same of last year € 7,460,402.793 Hohner will sell 633,725.286 units. Given that the new market of 900,000 units, the market share for Hohner is
633,725.286 units *100/ 900,000 = 70.414%
Hohner’s market share be next year must be = 70.414%


Given Marine Band harmonica retailed for €30 to includes 40% margin, distributers price will be €30/1.40=€21.429 which includes 12% margin. Thus Hohner’s selling price =€21.429 /1.12=€16.112

Fixed Costs
G. Manufacturing fixed cost € 900,000.000
H. Advertising budget € 500,000.000
I. Salary € 35,000.000
Total Fixed Cost (A+B+C)t € 1,435,000.000

Variable Costs
G. Manucturing variable cost € 2.700
H. Logistic € 0.600
I. Sales commission (10% of selling price) € 21.611
Total Variable Cost (A+B+C) € 4.911

Unit contribution _= Price/Variable cost €16.112 /€ 4.911=
€ 11.201

Break even point = Tot fixed costs/ (price-variable costs) € 1,435,000/(€16.112 /€ 4.911) = 128,119

Hohner to break even needs to sell 128,119 units

€ 7,460,402.793 = Total revenue – Total cost
= (€16.112 *units) – € 1,435,000.000 – (€ 4.911*units) =
=;(€ 7,460,402.793+€ 1,435,000.000)/ (€16.112-€ 4.911) = 794,194.309 units
Hohner to achieve the same profit must sell 794,194.309 units

For the profit to same of last year € 7,460,402.793 Hohner will sell 794,194.309 units. Given that the new market of 900,000 units, the market share for Hohner is
794,194.309 units *100/ 900,000 = 88.244%
Hohner’s market share be next year must be = 88.244%

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