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In oil drilling the earth surface is drilled up to 3-4 km to reach the surface of oil and for all of
this process we need an earth driller accompanied with a printed circuit board having an electronic
sensor circuit which sense and measure all the parameters including temperature, depth,
pressure etc. of operational area. These electronic components are mounted on the PCB and
these components with PCB have to sustain the high operational temperature approximately
300 C to 600 C at the depth of 3-4 km. Furthermore due to the high friction of drilling, the
vibrations are very high. This drilling process at the depth of 3-4 kilometer remains for several
minutes and until that time PCB and electronic components have to bear the high temperature
of 300 C to 600 C and severe vibrations without any damage so the process could be
completed smoothly. In this report we will find out the best possible technologies and materials
to form such a printed circuit board which could sustain operational temperature as well as
high vibrations for the time of drilling as well as we will search the materials to encapsulate
the electronic components to avoid them from scorching heat.
High Temperature Electronics
Oil Drilling industries searching for electronics components that can operate on
worst environment just like high temperatures. In past decades, engineers and technicians had
to rely on active and passive cooling for manufacturing of components that can be operate on
high temperature and also increase the reliability of the system. Cost is also a factor for designing
of components.
One of the biggest user of high temperatures electronics devices that have temperature greater than
150C is Downhole oil and gas drilling Industry. During oil drilling process, downhole instruments
collects data around the geological formation. This is called well logging. It can be measure resistivity,
radioactivity, acoustic, travel timing, magnetic resonance and different other properties. All these information
helps the geologist to make a decision about the type of rocks, types of fluid present also
collect data about the location. At the production phase electronic system monitor pressure, temperature,
vibration, multi-phase flow and actively control valves. To fulfill all these requirements, a complete
signal chain of high performance components are required. Reliability of component is the first
priority because replacement or repair of any electronics components in the deep in the well is very is
very difficult and it takes more than a day also loss of millions dollars per day. 9 Following figure
show schematic drawing of oil drilling.
High Temperature Electronics
3-Analysis of Problems:
In the past, oil drilling maximum operating temperature was 150°C to 175°C but
now a days the oil wells becoming down day by day. So that, the scientist have to design new
components that can operate on high temperature and high pressure. Temperature in these
wells are now exceeding more than 200°C and pressure more than 25Kpsi.In the figure below
shows different layer of earth with high temperature and pressure for oil drilling.
Main problems in oil drilling is
Vibrations during the digging process and
other is high Temperature. In deep
drilling, well control is complicated by
narrow drilling margins, higher bottom
hole pressures, and temperatures.
Applications of tools that can assist in
pore pressure prediction are limited by the
depth, temperature, and the high cost of
error.The temperature range of oil and gas
well is up to 200°C wheresas the
tepetearture range of geathermal well is
up to 450°C. For this high temperature,
high pressure and vibartions conditions
we need components that can operate on
this harsh environment.
High Temperature Electronics
4-Subdivision of Problems:
Temperature is a major cause of failure of electronic components and affects the
reliability of operation. For example, temperature influences various performance functions in
Electronic components. These include the carrier density, energy band gap, carrier diffusion,
mobility, current density, velocity
saturation, threshold voltage, and
interconnect resistance. For deep oil & gas
well logging, the electronic modules with in
the logging tool have to pass through
temperature of 200°C for hours. whereas,
typically possible operation temperature of
most available commercial electronics is no
more than 120°C.whereas, available
high temperature electronic components are
very expensive. In our senario, thermal fig: Downhole logging intrumentation signal chain
management is essential to protect heat sensitive electronics from worst thermal environment.
In view of the challenge mentioned above, an alternative option is the use of electronic
modules that are specially made for operation at high temperature.
The following are the failure mechanisms occurred in electronic components by high
? Electro-Magiration
? Electrical Overstress (EOS)
? Thermal Fatigue
? Solder joint failure
? Ionic effects
? Increase in laekage current
? Thermal Stress effect on PCB Fig: Thermal stress induced damage in a PCB
? Ionic effects & High Temperature Stress Migration
High Temperature Electronics
5-State of The Art:
5.1-Flex-Rigid PCB
The combination of Flex Printed circuit and Printed circuit board makes a new
products that is called Flex-Rigid PCB.It comprises of one or more rigid zones and one or
more flexible zones on a printed circuit board. However after passing through different
processes formed circuit board with Flex Printed
Circuit (FPC) characteristics and rigid Printed Circuit
Board (PCB) characteristics.
Polyimide is the main material of the rigid flex PCB.
Polyimide is a material that has a good heat dissipation
performance. Polyimide is better than traditional
dielectric materials. Rigid-Flex PCB can be made to
any shape and size and fit to any space design
according to the requirements. They are an integrated hybrid of printed circuit board and flex
circuit technology. They provides a better freedom of packaging geometry and a less
reduction of interconnects and repeatability of printed circuit board (PCB) technology. They
have temperate ranges from -200°C to 400°C, Rigid-Flex circuit design has made a
revolutional change in last few years. New designs required the rigid area to be fully
comprises of “rigid” boards. The development of flex board is based on the flexible plate and
high density multilayer rigid plate on it and has the same place in the process of
manufacturing. Due to rigid flex PCB use Polyimide material, it has good chemical resistance
to oils, acids, gases etc. The Flex Rigid PCB provides good radiation and UC exposure
resistance, that is the biggest
reason that it can be used in
high temperature areas.Flex
Rigid PCB is multilayered
PCB and it’s layer can be
shown in figure. IPC 2223C
Sectional Design Standard for
Flexible Printed Boards.
High Temperature Electronics
5.2-Silicon On Insulator (SOI) Process
IC technology has Recently produced devices that can operate efficiently at
temperature with guaranteed that mentioned on data sheet specifications. Advance technology
is in progress, that is circuit design, and layout techniques. Whereas, standard silicon can be
operated on requirement of 125°C of temperature. Leakage in standard silicon processes to
make it doubles for every 10°C increase to making it unacceptable for many
applications.Trench isolation, silicon-on-insulator (SOI), and different changes on the
standard silicon process largely decrease in leakage and make high performance operation to
the well above 200°C. Figure 1 depicts Silicon On Insulator bipolar process. Wide band gap
materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC). silicon
carbide ICs can be operated at up to 500°C to 600°C
and it can be shown in laboratory investigation.
Whereas, Silicon Carbide SiC is an devolping
process technology and recently, only few devices
are available like as power switches. Wide band gap
(WBG) semiconductors has larger energy bandgap,
Beause of this they have ability to operate at much
higher temperatures than other silicon. In next few years, WBG semiconductors will be
the material of choice for simultaneous realization of high power and high
temperature applications. Silicon
Carbide (SiC) based devices are
the most widely researched wide
bandgap semiconductor to date for
power switch realization SiCbased
devices are expected to be
able to operate up to 600°C. IBM
and AMD has already used SOI in
the microprocessor in 2000 and 2001
repectively.Table shows different
high temperature electronics
applications details.
High Temperature Electronics
6-Comparison between Flex Rigid Pcb and Silicon On Insulator
6.1-Flex Rigid PCB:
? Dielectric is thin
? Transmission routing is short
? Small through hole
? Small noise signal,high reliability
? Flexible to change shape in special
space requirement.
? Resist high and low temperature and
? Can fold and don’t effect the transmission.
? Against electrostatic disturbance
? The fabricated technology has complexed one because it involve Flex PCB and rigid
PCB technology and it is complex make at the same time.
? The cost of Components are very expensive for both rigid PCB and flex PCB.
? In Flex Rigid PCB, one board damages, other one is also unuseful.
6.2-Silicon On Insulator
? High temperature compatibility
? Smart power integration
? Embedded memory integration
? Less Power consumption
? Greater speed of operation
? Reduced Source and Drain to Substrate Capacitance
? Lower Passive current
High Temperature Electronics
7-Our Solution:
In process of oil drilling we face two type of problems that are vibrations
and high temperature. We have two types of techniques and material that we can use to get rid
of this problem that is Flex rigid PCB and Silicon On Insulator Process. Both of the
technologies can be operate on high temperature both have temperature range more than
500°C. But in our senario we can use Silicon on Insulator process, because Oil Drilling is a
complex process so we required only a flexible and long lasting solution. Silicon carbide
device technology is being developed for power electronic applications for use at high
temperatures. Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology gives the ability to realize complex
electronic functions. We can use bulk silicon, SOI, and wide band gap devices to operate on
high temperature devices.
Silicon-On-Silicon-Carbide devices are designed and
fabricated to avoid from hard radiation and able to
operate on high temperature. These type of devices
concepts are the combination of silicon on insulator
and Silicon Carbide. Silicon Carbide SiC is the most
popular material in the wide band gap Category. This
combination makes a system that efficiently control
the temperature. Given table shows the wide band gap
and other physical properties of different materials.
SiC and SOI is Ideal for high temperature
power devices because of the following reasons: Figure from: 6
? high thermal conductivity
? high electric field breakdown strength
? wide band gap
? temperature range greater than 500°C
? SiC is durable, cheap, commercial available
with more than 200 polytypes.
High Temperature Electronics
? Cost is less than Flex-Rigid PCB
Table given below shows different ranges of temperature of Silicon on Insulator
process. As seen that wide band gap has the highest capacity to operate on high temperature.
Our maximum temperature in oil drilling process is 600°C so that Silicon on Insulator can be
used in our process of oil drilling.

In future, wide band gap semiconductor will be used because of their larger energy
band and capable of electronic operation at much higher temperatures than Silicon. Wide
Band gap Semiconductor will be the first choice for operation of high power and high temperature

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