1.IntroductionThis report discusses the role of national and international CAD standards within the technical drawing sector. Standards will be outlined and their importance discussed. The need for international will be debated and comparison made between the USA and Europe conventions. Additionally, the relationship between software and hardware will be analyzed to support the importance of CAD within the engineering environment. Finally a conclusion shall be drawn to outline the need for CAD within a manufacturing company. CAD drawings within computer systems are used to support the creation of effective designs, by increasing the productivity, quality and communication to manufacturing industries. CAD drawings are found in electronic form (files) which can be made physical by printing. These types of drawings are related to engineer drawings which have been discussed below.Engineer drawings: Is often considered more than a picture, many individuals term this aspect as graphical language.Its communicates the desired standard that the engineer has drawn for a worker to implement. This helps support vocal conversations with physical evidence. 2.National StandardsTo ensure all engineer drawings meet a universal standard, governing bodies such as The British Standards Institutions were implemented. This body published the latest revision of 8888:2017 Technical Product Specification, (Bsigroup.com, 2018). This institution helps all businesses to meet the same standardized operation, and further supports clearer communication. Moreover this supports the desired ideal of internationalization within the engineering sector as it allows others who speak different languages share the same common understanding of engineer drawings. Additionally this mean outsourcing becomes easier and empowers targets to be met regardless of language/communication barriers. BS 8888 provides the following benefits:Access to one reference source and reduces ambiguity Ensures the same language is conversed when presenting graphical designsReduces the chances for misinterpretation and aids streamlining opsHelps transfer designs from the office to manufacturing floorShorten development timeReduces costs and saves time3. BS 8888 Main featuresBS 8888 (BS 8888:2017, 2018) sets out parameters when creating technical drawings this include: printing on landscape A3 paper with the dimensions of 420x297mm. Margins are to set with the left side being 20mm and all others 10mm. Title blocks require set fields to support the documentation process of technical drawings. The following entries are mandatory within BS888 standards:Legal ownerDate of issueIdentification numberSheet number Title Approved personCreatorDocument type (assembly, detail,etc.)The national standard outlines that the title block must be housed in the bottom right hand corner of the drawing. Additionally projections can be included within the title block to support user identification and reference points. Orthographic drawings are typically used with BS888 to support creation process. The standard pilots that the title block details the angle in which the drawing has been created, this is either first or third angle. An example of technical drawing meeting BS 888 standards has been down below:20mm left hand margin10mm margins for othersTitle block bottom rightA3 Page (landscape)ProjectionDrawing type4.International standardsThe International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), (Iso.org, 2018) is a non-government international organisation which operates with 162 national standard bodies. The introduction of this enables its members to share expert knowledge and develop market lead standards to aid in the innovation of global design standards. The organization began in 1946 with 25 countries as the original member base. Their aim was to usher in coordinated and unified industrial standards. This would further open up communication channels and enable innovation through agreed standards. ISO in 2018 operates with members from 162 countries and 777 technical committees and subcommittees. However not everyone still accepts the need for internationalised CAD standards and the important role it has with pathing the way for innovation. ISO 128 (128-1:2003, 2018) was introduced to support the general principles for the presentation of technical drawings. This standard applies both to manual and computer aided designs. However these principles do not apply to 3D CAD drawings. The aim of this standard to was to usher in the exchange of international information on drawings and establishing a comprehensive system for technical functions. ISO 128 (128-1:2003, 2018) is mainly used within mechanical engineering and construction (shipbuilding) sectors. Concerns arise with elements of the document may be subject to patent rights, and limit the desired target of standardisation. ISO 128-1 (128-1:2003, 2018) was established by the Technical committee ISO/TC 10 ‘technical product documentation’. Subcommittee SC1 outline ‘basic conventions’. ISO 128 consists of the following: Part 1: Introduction and indexPart 20: Basic conventions for linesPart 21: Preparation of lines by CAD systemsPart 22: Basic conventions and applications for leader lines and reference linesPart 23: Lines on construction drawingsPart 24: Lines on mechanical engineering drawings Part 25: Lines on shipbuilding drawings Part 30: Basic conventions for views Part 34: Views on mechanical engineering drawings Part 40: Basic conventions for cuts and sectionsPart 44: Sections on mechanical engineering drawingsPart 50: Basic conventions for representing areas on cuts and sections A good comparison to demonstrate the need for both national and international standards can be made between Europe and the USA. The United States still operate with the imperial system, whereas Europe have moved to metric. Due to the lack of agreed internalisation within the CAD sector it places more strain businesses to produce technical specifications for both measurement systems. This in return places more output and wastage in terms of time allocation and potential printing resourcing to offer a spectrum of technical documentation. By setting internal CAD standards businesses can slowly start to pathe the way to internalisation of an overall agreement. This can be achieved by using getting their customer base to comply to their internal requirements and this should eventually saturate into the global marketplace. Additionally, acceptance from larger companies can further speed up this process. 5. CAD featuresThe main features that CAD drawings need to comply with regards to both national and international standards have been discussed below:Line thickness: relates to the pen and plots used within the production of the document (0,13mm Gray). Parts that are printed in black from AutoCAD are drawn in 1 of 7 colour bases. The table below outlines this in greater detail. Table sourced from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAD_standardsDescriptionLine thickness in mmColor CodesOut Line0.20 or 0.25White, Cyan, Yellow,BlueHidden Line0.00 or 0.05Blue, Gray, 241Center Line0.10 or 0.15Green, Red, BlueNote0.18 or 0.20White, Cyan, Green, 41Thin Line0.00 or 0.05Gray, 08, 111Reference Line0.000Magenta, GrayHatch Line0.000Magenta, Green, Gray,redColor-9 to 2560.000Dimension lineLeader Line with Arrows0.000Gray Color-9,or 8, RedText0.18 or 0.20Cyan, Green,Text and Height dimensions: Indicates the relevant size and font type that need to be used when creating a CAD drawing. The typical fonts used are called Romans.shx – Romantic Simplex”, “ISOCPEUR.ttf”. However exceptions can be made for the following fonts for Arial and Time New Roman.Scales: offer guidance for the correct scaling parameters that drawings are required to meet. Most common scales found within autoCAD software are 1:1,2:1 etc. The scaling is maintained to offer optimum clarify of part/model characteristics and relevant annotated information (dimensions, radius). 6.Software and HardwareTo ensure compliance the following software and hardware packages have been created by companies to support with Technical drawing standards that are both national and international.AutoDesk is the most prominent software package within the educational system due to the scope of programmes it offers. This ranges from AutoCAD to Inventus to support in the production of both 2D/3D modelling. This package was developed by John Walker to support many industries with computer aided designs. This industries mentioned range from construction, engineering to entertainment. Hardware that a business will adopt to support CAD within the company’s operations, will depend on the scale of detail which is required. Competent computer systems are required to be installed to support the creation of CAD drawings.These computer systems require higher RAM, Hard drives and processing powers to offer optimal efficiency. Due to the nature of technological advancements company’s need to review hardware and software packages consistently to maintain compliance and stay in range or ahead of its competitors. This included updating processing power to meet changes in software updates. Additionally Monitors need to offer clear resolution and limit the distortion of imaging. This can be reduced by using bigger systems that are compatible with 4K to offer increased accuracy when creating such technical drawings.Plotters which have slowly been phased out of operation due to the introduction of more technically capable printers, have limitations with the sizing of the device. This relates to the size and scale that a company needs to produce larger drawings. However smaller printers can produce the same standard quality on a smaller scale. Scanner allow hard copy drawings to take digital form. When as business seeks to introduce such products into the work based operations the following needs to be considered. The resolution at which the device can processed and size of the scanner. This equipment has many advantages due to technological evolution and broadened communication channels. With the ability to digitize physical documents information can be passed more freely between internal company structures and customers. Digitized information can be sent across the globe due to e-mail systems. This offers many opportunities for products to be adapted to customer needs quickly, and further offers the ability outsource production teams which can reduce costs. Moreover the introduction of Tablets (PDA) such as IPads have further facilitated the ability to complete CAD drawings on the move. This enables more customer friendly approach to design as the customer can be present at the time. This empowers standards and requirements to be established clearly and further aid the production team with effective budgeting strategies. 7. Software and Hardware relationshipFrom looking at the many types of software and hardware packages available to companies, it is clear to see that both areas are dependent on each other. Without the use of autoDesk software packages, sketches can not be digitized and dimensioned with the accuracy that computer systems can offer. Additionally without the hardware such as printers the finished drawings will not take physical form. Both packages have the ability to further support the compliance with national and international standards as software packages are coded to comply, and templates can be created to ensure drawings are printed within the BS888 standards. The ease of access is another way to determine a clear relationship between the both due to portable devices. This enables drawings be created on the move and increases accessibility to all workers. As mentioned previous portable devices have enable business to become more customer focused, with a new way to approach working methods. Hardware offers the ability for businesses to evolve through the use of powerful computer based systems. This increases their scope to introduce new software packages into the workplace which can further improve efficiency and potential to offer new services. The use of such systems to turn computer coded algorithm in physical form require consistent review periods to help identify upgrade opportunities and requirements.There is a third entity that ties into the relationship between software and hardware, this is known as peopleware. This term refers to development and maintenance of computer systems within the business. This extends further to solving issues with software creators, productivity and team dynamics. These individuals are vital for the efficiency of business operations and the potential to grow with technological advancements. CAD has brought many benefits to the manufacturing process, these have been discussed below: 3D CAD files can quickly be transferred to drive Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) production software. The information inputted from the CAM operates machinery and other industrial tools through the use of Computer- Numerical- Control (CNC). This type of process is used in speed machining (lathes) to bring increased accuracy.Software packages for both CAD/CAM enables tool pathing to be checked prior to material being cut. The use of stimulation features support the control of waste material and reduction in scrap costs, through the virtual domain of the machining process. Additionally, these simulations identify manufacturing run times and support project planning process. The budget can benefit from CAD/CAM systems as material amounts and costing have increased accuracy with machining tolerance and dimensioning generated from CAD drawings. However the introduction of these systems breeds risk in the form of machining mistakes. This stems from the conversion of CAD data into CAM format. INspections are required to ensure all dimensions are accurate to reduce scrapped work.CAD has brought new tooling benefits to the manufacturing industry in the form of molded/casted or pressed parts through the use of CAD data. The ability to use send data across the world via email, enabled quotes and production costs to be compared. Additionally, the potential for increased workforces offers greater production opportunities at the fraction of the price. 3D modelling within CAD enables manufacturing engineers to design tooling, custom parts at a quicker rate. This support the use of CAD as a time saving component within manufacturing. Outsourcing breeds cost saving and offers increased skill bases workforces across the world. The use of CAD now forms the base for some of the most lucrative contracts within the engineering industry and depicts whether certain manufacturing companies are awarded the revenue. The use of bill generation within CAD software offers better quotation opportunities and budgeting for companies starting new projects.The option to send data across that meets standards such as BS888, enables outsourcing to become more accessible with language barriers being broken down. This offers cheaper resourcing and increased profit margin for the company who seeks to outsource. The introduction of free or minimal cost CAD programs enable supply chains to view documents and add extra context to requirements with the use of notes or manipulation of the date. Resulting in the product becoming more customer facing and ensures the end standard meets the target audience. Lastly CAD programs enhance the inspection in manufacturing, as an objective check is introduced through comparing physical parts against CAD drawing dimensioning. The utilisation of CMM (Coordinate measuring machines) provide another layer of checking accuracy of products. This information is typically achieved by using CAD generated data from the design process. The introduction of 3D printers supports the manufacturing process with the ability to produce parts or modules directly from the CAD data. 3D offer increased scope within the manufacturing industry with the ability to print final production parts in a number of materials such as polymers, metals and ceramics. 8.Justification for CAD within manufacturingOverall it is clear to see that CAD drawings have enabled the manufacturing process to evolve with technological advancements. CAD offers many benefits as discussed above which further increase operational scope. However this is all dependant on the investment companies are willing to make into both software,hardware and peopleware. Without these investments the ability to manufacture efficiently and with greater accuracy will be hindered. This can see competitors increase their scale and gain greater market share. It is vital that drawings created comply with National and International conventions to aid in the production technical drawings. This will further enhance the company’s ability to communicate and outsource information and skills across the global market . Some features of modern CAD systems include, (Newworldencyclopedia.org, 2018):Solid modelingCreation of engineering drawings from the solid modelsFreeform surface modelingAutomated design of assemblies, which are collections of parts and/or other assembliesReuse of design partsEase model design modification and the production of multiple versionsAutomatic generation of standard parts of the designValidation/verification of designs against specifications and design standards/requirementsSimulation of designs without building a physical modelProduction of engineering documentation, such as manufacturing drawings, and Bills of Materials required to build the productImport/Export routines to transfer data with other software packagesOutput of design data directly to manufacturing facilitiesOutput directly to a fast Prototyping or quick Manufacture Machine for industrial modelingSustaining libraries of parts and assembliesCalculating characteristics of parts and assembliesAiding conceptualization with shading, rotating, hidden line removal, and many othersInclusion of programming code in a model to control and relate desired elements of the modelAll of the above add another layer into the importance of CAD within the engineering environment. Each feature offer companies the capacity to innovate within in their own infrastructure. This facilitates growth of the business and offers a greater spectrum of diversified opportunities through contract acquisition. 9. ConclusionTo conclude CAD have brought a new standard to the creation of engineering/technical drawings. This has been achieved through the improved accuracy computer systems can offer businesses. Moreover the production of such documentation has been sped up through the use of computer systems. This enables more designs to be created within prior to the production of the parts/product. This gives greater scope to offer a tailored and bespoke business product that meets the customer needs. Customer focus has been a key staple in the survival of business within the recent years. The use of portable devices with CAD software as facilitated the previous point further, and promotes the adoption of personalized experiences for the business target audience.