the prevalence of teenage pregnancies at our institute
the socio-demographic factors associated with teenage pregnancy
3. To study the incidence of MTPs among teenage
pregnant patients at our institute.
the incidence of reproductive losses among teenage patients at our institute
5. To study the incidence of antenatal
complications like anemia, preterm labour, hypertensive disorders, eclampsia
and STIs among teenage patients at our institute.
the intra-partum and post-partum complications in teenage patients.
the fetomaternal outcome of teenage pregnancy at our institute
the perinatal morbidity and mortality in association with teenage pregnancy
the prevalence of contraception usage among teenage patients
The youngest mother whose history is authenticated
in the world is Lina Medina , who was delivered by caeserian section in Lima,
Peru, in May 1939. Her age at the time of delivery was 5 years and 8 months.
Ghose et al (1976)5 found that abnormal presentation and lie were no more frequent
and labour was no more difficult and complicated than older patients. Forceps
delivery (3.95%) and caeserian section (2.12%) were not more frequent. The
incidence of pre-eclampsia(6.06%) , eclampsia (1.93%) and prematurity(14.94%)
were found to be higher in teenagers. Perinatal loss (6.79%) was not greater
than in general population , but in younger teenagers it was higher(10.4%).
Lavella (1982)6 studied the growth of birth canal in adolescent girls. The
growth of pelvis is less associated with the general gynaecological development
than with chronological age. The pelvis is smaller and less mature among girls
with early menarche than among girls with late menarche. Therefore , immaturity
of the birth canal may have significant obstetric risks for the young teenage
primipara. Smaller pelvis, therefore contributes to higher incidence of CPD and
dystocia for primipara below 15 years.
et al (1984)7 studied 5994 deliveries in Sirur, Maharashtra. Adolescent
pregnancies constituted 10% of deliveries. Risk factors such as prolonged
labour, short stature, and anemia were associated more with women under 18
years of age. Statistically significant differences were found in the rate of
LBW infants, SB, and late neonatal deaths. The neonatal mortality rate was
2.5-18 times greater when associated risk factors, except anemia and PIH were
et al (1990)8 did a study on 200 consecutive cases upto 19 years of age
admitted in the Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital Mumbai . rate of prematurity
in 15-17 years was 43%(6 girls) and in 17-19 years was 14%(26 girls) . Only 4
girls (29%) in the 15-17 year age group had full term normal delivery as
compared to 113 (61%) in the 17-19 year age group, signifying that the outcome
pregnancy becomes worst in girls below 17
years. Rate of LBW babies in 15-17 years was 71%(10 babies) and in 17-19 years
was 44%(75 babies) signifying inverse
relation of birth weight with maternal age.
et al (1993)9 had reported most teenage pregnancies occur in the lower
socioeconomic group, especially the unmarried with increasing sexual freedom,
teenage pregnancies are increasing in higher socioeconomic group also, but the
rate of abortion in this group is high.
amita et al (1997)10 in department of obstetrics and gynaecology , Indira Gandhi
Medical College, Shimla, did a retrospective study on the obstetric outcome in
80 teenage pregnancies as compared to a control group (n=80) of women (20-
30 years) of same parity. The overall incidence
of teenage pregnancies were3.2%. Anemia (27.5%), FGR (27.5%), and hypertension
(15%) were mostly found as complications in study group as compared to controls
(11.2%, 8.7%, abd 8.7% respectively). The incidence of forceps delivery was
higher (17.4%) in the study group as compared to controls(6.2%). Stillbirth
rate was 1.25% and there was no maternal mortality.
et al (1997)11 have conducted several polls have indicated peer pressure as a
factor in encouraging both girls and boys to have sex. The increased sexual
activity among adolescents is manifested in increased teenage pregnancies and
an increase in sexually transmitted diseases.
Sharma et al (1999)12 from department of community medicine did a study in a
resettlement colony in east Delhi with case control design and found home
delivery rates two times amongst adolescents than among adults. Most of the
complications were also more in adolescents.
Chahande et al (2002)13 Government Medical college and Hospital,
Nagpur concluded that incidence of stillbirths, preterm delivery, and LBW were
common in teenage pregnancy and complications like toxemia of pregnancy,
eclampsia , CPD were
more during pregnancy or labour in teenagers. 2 groups did not had different caesarean section
rate.no statistical significanct differences seen between ANC and favourable
et al (2003)14 had found evidence that women who are themselves children of
teenage mothers are more likely to have a teenage pregnancy compared with those
born to older mothers and their offspring are at risk for becoming teenage
mothers or fathers themselves.
Kumar et al (2006)15 performed a retrospective case control study at Banaras Hindu
University and reported 4.1% incidence of teenage deliveries. Complications
like PIH, preeclampsia, eclampsia and preterm labour were 11.4%, 4.3%, 4.9% and
26.1% respectively. Complications occurred more commonly in teenagers compared
to controls. Teenage mothers also had increased incidence of LBW babies
(50.4%). And neonatal morbidities like perinatal asphyxia, jaundice and
respiratory distress sundrome. Teenage pregnancy was also associated with high
fetal (1.9%) and neonatal (3.8%) mortality.
Banerjee et al (2008)16in a
hospital based cohort study, among women admitted to a rural hospital in
West Bengal, found 24.17% incidence of teenage pregnancy. The prevalence of
anemia (62.96%), preterm delivery (51.72%), and the incidence of LBW (65.52%)
was significantly higher among the group of teenagers.