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1.What is project management?1.1 What is a project?A project is a one-time operational group of activities needed to achieve a result, such as the construction of a new building or the development of a new software. A project is temporary which means it has a defined beginning and end in time, and therefore defined scope and resources. And a project is unique which means is not a routine operation. Project team often includes people who don’t usually work together.1.2 Project managementProject management is the application of processes, methods, knowledge, skills, tools, experience and techniques to achieve the project objectives.The construction of a building, development of software for an improved business process, the relief effort after a natural disaster, the expansion of sales into a new geographic market, the development of a new product, all these are projects. And all of them must be expertly managed to deliver the results on-time and on-budget.1.3 Brief history of the project managementProject management is a relatively recent discipline. In 1950s, the development of complex military systems required to coordinate the efforts of different teams and disciplines. Bernard Schriever, the Polaris missile development architect, is considered the father of project management. He introduced the term “concurrence” which means to integrate all the needed elements in a unique program and budget. The goal of the concurrence was to execute different activities in parallel and not sequentially and applied to Thor, Atlas and Minuteman projects, time to market was considerably reduced. The car manufacturing industry followed these techniques, applying project management tools to coordinate work among different teams and areas to reduce costs. Specific tools began to emerge: histograms, chronograms, project lifecycle, concept or tasks decomposition…3In 1960s some organizations dedicated important efforts in developing and broadcast the project management epistemology, to offer predictability and quality warranties in project outcomes.In 1970s, the solvency of these methodologies was proved in military industry and in car manufacturing. Their usage solved problems regarding quality and timing. Thus, many other sectors (pharmaceutical, chemical, services, IT) adopted quickly these methodologies, giving actual validity of them in all scopes.In 1986, when classic methodological approaches had reached certain maturity, Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujijo Nonaka, both professors in Hitotsubashi University of Japan, published the article “The New New Product Development Game”. The article looked at practices in some successful manufacturing companies such as Fuji-Xerox, Honda, 3M, Toyota and other high performing organizations. The authors drew attention to the practise in these companies of having an overlapping development process (‘like Sashimi’), rather than the older sequential approach. The authors realized that these companies, working in very competitive markets with very advanced technological products, were ignoring classic principles of high quality and reduced costs. They compared this new way of working with rugby teams and the environment where they worked was so named “scrum field”.The article attracted attention when it was published but it wasn’t significant for software development until later. In the early 1990s, software development faced a crisis widely referred to as “the application development crisis,” or “application delivery lag”. Industry experts estimated that the time between a validated business need and an actual application in production was about three years.The problem was businesses moved faster than that, even 25 years ago. Within the space of three years requirements, systems, and even entire businesses were likely to change. That’s why software industries were keen on changing classic methodologies and being more “Agile”. In 2001 seventeen software developers met in Utah to discuss these lightweight4development methods. Together they published the Manifesto for Agile Software Development.

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