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2.1Identify possible development opportunities relevant to improving own practice
I am always looking for ways in which I can improve my performance. I am always open to training and development opportunities, enrolling in courses or training plans is an invaluable way to gain the skills or knowledge you need to develop in your role and improve in specific practices. I have completed many courses to improve myself. Last year I have completed level 1 in Functional English and Functional Math level 1 and Childcare level 1. Currently I am attending Functional English level 2, Maths level 2, Teaching assistant level 2 and employability skills courses. I have also completed health and safety level 1 with Ealing Adult Learning (have not received my certificates yet) I have attached some of the certificates at the back.
2.2 Describe the importance of continuing professional development
Continuing professional development is an important part of education as continuing development and training makes sure of a high level of knowledge and allows teachers and other individuals to keep their professional skills and knowledge up to date. For example, professional development needs to be used as new knowledge that may help us to deal with new or complicated situations is shared with us. It also helps with keeping up to date with the latest teaching techniques and helps us to take regular reviews of procedures and practices such as first aid, safeguarding, data protection, health and safety and many more. Continuing professional development increases the standard of the skills we have, and it allows us to always be updating skills and developing knowledge and to be successful at school. We can become more effective in the workplace. This assists us to advance in our career and move into new positions where we can lead, manage, influence, coach and teach others.

2.3 work with an appropriate person to:
a) identify own strengths, and areas where practice could improve
b) plan ways in practice could improve
c) identify goals and targets
I would like to improve in every aspect of my life. No matter how good I am at a particular skill or task, I believe I can always get better, and would like an opportunity to gain new experiences that will help me become better at anything I do.
Communication:
I have worked to become a better communicator, but I still have some trouble when speaking to a large group. I have started to go to group meetings and volunteer to speak so I can improve my communication skills
I would like to strengthen my presentation skills when I present to large audiences. I find I often speak a little too slow, especially when I begin my presentation, so I would like to improve my voice and delivery.

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2.4 Take part in continuing professional development that is relevant to own goals and targets
Continuing professional development allows us to maintain our knowledge and skills related to school. It helps us stay up-to-date with new information, policies and procedures, along with new techniques, research and recommendations. To continue professional development, I have started attending many social meetings that allow me to become more confident speaking in front of a large crowd and allow me to improve my presentation goals. Both of these are my goals and targets and I am trying to fulfil both of these targets. Taking part in many different forms of professional development allow me to be able to get better at what I do and help me to improve in what I am lacking in. This professional development can take place in courses and many other things.
3.1 Describe why team work is important in schools. 
Team work is very important in any work place and especially in the school environment. Every school you work in you will be part of a group of people that must work together to make sure their classroom runs smoothly. Team work also provides a good role model for their pupils, because it shows respect and communication. Team work can be helped by holding regular meetings where ideas, information and opinions can be shared, and everyone feels that their voice is valued. 
In the setting where I volunteer, the classroom has a class teacher and teaching assistants, as well as me. The staffs come from different cultures, backgrounds and are different ages, but we are professionals and friendly with each other; giving each other full support and respect. Small things make a difference, so asking each other if we need any help or if anyone would like to drink of tea or coffee all makes a difference and it helps to make a supportive and friendly team 
No person can be good at everything and everyone has something to add to the team so working in closely together provides a great opportunity for the school staff to learn from each other’s skills and talents for the benefit for all the pupils. 
3.2 Describe the purpose and objectives of the team in which they work. 
The purpose of creating a team is to provide a foundation that will increase the ability of employees to participate in planning, problem solving and decision making that will improve the standard in the school. Workplace targets are goals that the team in the school sets out to achieve within a certain time. They must be measurable and realistic. For example, if my work is to support a child in group or individually, I may work with the school SENCO or a different professional who has come into the school to support the child. Together, we will need to write and record the child’s progress and agree if extra support is needed; for example, speech and language or social communication. In my primary school, the teacher assistant works very closely with the class teacher and sometimes with other adults like parents or other staff members. In secondary school, the teacher assistant is more likely to work in a certain department or subject area in which they have a strength. In secondary school, the teacher assistant and the class teacher work together to carry out a successful class. These plans should also include information about the role and learning intentions of other adults within a year group that you are working in. It is important for all members of staff to understand their roles and how to keep an ethical relationship with other members of the team. Also, communication with others is very necessary and important part of working well within the team.
3.3 Describe own role and responsibilities and those of others in the team. 
When working in teams I always respect and value the knowledge and opinions of other practitioners. I always listen and respect what other team members have to say whether it is personal, or work related. This is because in order to have a good working relationship with them, you need to show that you have considered their opinions and experience. My role requires me to work alongside a number of adults and pupils and pass on information to each member of staff so it is essential for me to have a good relationship with each and every member of staff. Teaching assistants should always be aware of the example they are setting to the children and ensure they provide a positive learning experience for them. It is very important that staff members work together as a team. Not everyone will have the same views, so if you don’t communicate your views to each other staff members then conflict can occur. By working together as part of a team and communicating with each other it will be less likely that conflict will occur which will mean that the atmosphere will be more pleasant not only for the staff but also for the children. It is also important that staff build good relationships with parents or guardians. If a good relationship is built then trust will develop and this will help staff and parent to work together to help the child settle in much quicker. This welcoming and secure atmosphere will help the child to settle in and relax and will make it easy for the parents to share confidential information, make comments and take an interest, enabling the child’s expectations and needs are met. By creating clear and positive communication opportunities parents are aware that they can approach staff with problems and ideas and it will be positively and promptly acted upon.Furtrhermore, I share my views and concerns about pupils’ learning and support to each other team member so that they are able to provide support to those pupils efficiently.Also most of my colleagues have had a lot more experience than myself and are therefore likely to be able to offer good advice in situations I have had no experience of. Every member of staff within the school has a particular skill or area of expertise, so other members of staff who are not so skilled in a particular area can turn to their colleague for advice and help.When I experience positive feedback, I share it to other team members so that they are encouraged and aware of dealing with such situations. I always remain calm, non-judgemental and respect others feedback.
3.4 Describe the importance of respecting the skills and expertise of other practitioners
It is important to respect the skills and expertise of your fellow staff members to help develop a good working relationship. We need to respect each other because we can learn a lot from other people as no one person knows everything. It helps to listen to others in your team because no one is an expert at everything and we need to be able to ask others for help. If we do not respect people and are rude then no one will want to help you. An effective team can achieve more than an individual. This is because as a team you can work together and gets the task done quicker, but on your own it takes a lot longer. Futhermore, respecting others on your team it creates a positive environment and encourages children and young people to do the same, because they look up to the staff as role models. When you respect a team members skills and expertise you can help support families and children because you can confer on any issues they may have and if you struggle then you can speak to others on your team for advice and any information they have to help with the situation.

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2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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