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CS CHEPHE: 200409512
CS CHEPHE: 200409512

Research Topic:
Effects of Sexual harassment in the workplace: Female Employees being sexually harassed in the engineering Industry
The issue of sexual harassment has certainly become more prominent in the last decade. As the increasing number of cases reported, many countries have taken statutory action to recognize it as an insultive conduct and at the same time to punish and prevent it. In the hotel industry particularly, sexual harassment has frequently reported as a key problem. Working in the hospitality industry often involves an employee with a number of different people in the course of delivering service. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between awareness of sexual harassment in relation to the employment in hospitality industry in Terengganu. A total of 260 respondents were selected from the employees in various hotels and resorts in Terengganu. Three predictors, offensive behavior, sexual coercion, risk on human factor, were found to have medium to strong correlation with the dependent variables namely employment. The regression analysis also shows that offensive behavior, sexual coercion, risks on human factor are positively and significantly related to employment. The researcher suggests that human resource managers in the hotels and resorts should formulate, in consultation with Malaysian law and labor relations experts, in order to improve sexual harassment policies. (Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, Vol 6 July 2015), Rome-Italy
Key words: sexual harassment; Engineering industry; Female employees;
Problem Statement
Engineering Sector is observed to be a male dominated industry, as a result sexual harassment has become a fundamental problem to female subordinates. Statistics has presented that most of woman are experiencing sexual harassment by their male bosses or supervisors as well as fellow colleagues in exchange of precious commodities.
In the engineering industry particularly, sexual harassment has frequently reported as a key problem. Working in the engineering industry often involves cases were female employees are exposed to being sexually harassed by male employees in higher positions. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between awareness of sexual harassment in relation to the employment in engineering industry.

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Over the last five years, Human Rights Watch has documented sexual harassment in the Engineering Sector in Southern African Development Communities (SADC). We found that the abuses were common, legal protections did not exist or were weakly enforced, and efforts to audit factories or monitor for harassment were ineffective (Aruna Kashyap, December 11, 2017 11:22AM EST)
Sexual harassment on woman has become a serious challenge for woman working in the engineering sector. Women face various forms of discrimination in the male-dominated engineering industry.Associated Schools of Engineering (2016) found that the most dominant problem is sexual harassment experienced by woman.
The following are various forms of sexual harassment:
Sexual harassment may include unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct, but is not limited to the examples listed as follows:
(a) Physical conduct of a sexual nature includes all unwanted physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape, and includes a strip search by or in the presence of the opposite sex.

(b) Verbal forms of sexual harassment include unwelcome innuendoes, suggestions and hints, sexual advances, comments with sexual overtones, sex-related jokes or insults or unwelcome graphic comments about a person’s body made in their presence or directed toward them, unwelcome and inappropriate enquiries about a person’s sex life, and unwelcome whistling directed at a person or group of persons.
(c) Non-verbal forms of sexual harassment include unwelcome gestures, indecent exposure, and the unwelcome display of sexually explicit pictures and objects.
(d) Quid pro quo harassment occurs where an owner, employer, supervisor, member of management or co-employee, undertakes or attempts to influence the process of employment, promotion, training, discipline, dismissal, salary increment or other benefit of an employee or job applicant, in exchange for sexual favours.
(2) Sexual favouritism exists where a person who is in a position of authority rewards only those who respond to his/her sexual advances, whilst other deserving employees who do not submit themselves to any sexual advances are denied promotions, merit rating or salary increases.

Sexual Harassment in Sothern African Countries stated to be increased while findings revealed that between 35% and 53% of women have experienced sexual harassment at work. Base on the statistics from South African Police Services (SAPS), the rate of sexual violence in South Africa is among the highest in the world. Sexual violence is the use of force or manipulation to get someone to engage in unwanted sexual activity without their consent. During 2015/16, there were 51,895 crimes of a sexual nature reported to the South African Police Service.According to government gazette (2014), the rates of cases on sexual harassment in Southern African Countries do not differ too much from the situation found in the United States (US). With regards to the cost, in 2005 alone, the issue of sexual harassment has certainly become more prominent in the last decade. As the increasing number of cases reported, an aggressive jurisdictive action has been taken by many countries to recognize sexual harassment as insulting manners and at the same time to prevent the act to become worse and penalize the harasser.

Literature review
This section looks at the various definitions of sexual harassment, sexual harassment and employment, sexual coercion and offensive behavior.
Definition of sexual harassment
Labour Law and Employment Manual (2018) states that, sexual harassment is unwanted conduct of a sexual nature. The unwanted nature of sexual harassment distinguishes it from behaviour that is welcome and mutual. Sexual attention becomes sexual harassment if:
(a) The behaviour is persisted in, although a single incident of harassment can constitute sexual harassment; and/or (b) The recipient has made it clear that the behaviour is considered offensive; and/or(c) The perpetrator should have known that the behaviour is regarded as unacceptable.
         Sexual Harassment Vs employment
It is imperative to address the impacts of sexual harassment on the organization and the individual. Studies has showed that Sexual harassment can jeopardize the victim’s emotional and mental health. It can lead to the loss of self-esteem and it may even compromise personal relationships. Sexual harassment in the workplace can cause significant stress and anxiety to those that are affected.

According to Workplace answers and Verify company (2018) sexual harassment cost employers in many ways including legal and monetary costs, increase worker absenteeism and worker sick-days, staff turnover consequence to raise cost of hiring and training inexperienced staff, adverse public reaction, employees’ productivity reduced and low morale. In respect to this, stated that the incident of sexual harassment offers direct effect such as negative feelings towards job which lead to job dissatisfaction, turnover intentions, and emotional effect for instance insomnia, headaches and stomach problem.

As sexual harassment will affect various element of employees’ employment, the act also perhaps will affect organization’s success as well. The most frequent variables disclosed in the sexual harassment literature are job satisfaction. Besides, reduce in job satisfaction also greatly influenced by sexual violence and harassment in the workplace (Ironson, 1992; Lapierre et al., 2005; Mueller et al., 2001; Munson et al., 2000).Wellness et AL., (2007) further stated that, due to the employees’ experience sexually abusive at work may greatly reduce the employees’ attachment and commitment to their organization. In this situation, the organization is responsible for the incidents of sexual harassment among their employees by implementing strictly no-harassment policies because the harassed employees often expect the organization to support and protect their rights. If the superior fail to consider the action, such displeasure may lead to anger towards the organization (for failing to protect them or tolerating such behaviours) and the perpetrator. As a result, it may consequent lack of involvement and attachment from the employees towards the
Organization (Wellness et al, 2007).

Sexual Coercion
Sexual coercion is a public health hazard with several consequences and influencing factors experiences of sexual coercion tend to be under-reported, although the consequences for its victims remain Previous studies have attributed this lack of reporting by victims of sexual coercion to the socio-cultural context of what people deem as acceptable or unacceptable in society also partly due to the unbalanced power relations between victims and perpetrators. Although generally overlooked in earlier years, sexual coercion is now increasingly gaining attention from the public and the research community. (Doi2012 Dec 11)
Offensive behaviour of sexual harassment
Offensive conduct usually occurs in hostile environment pattern of harassment and this sexually related behaviour may not be relevant to job-related outcomes. Any act of oral or bodily conduct in sexual form, undesirable sexual advances, sexual favours request by the harasser and other oral or bodily conduct in the sexual form that not affected or interfere with employees’ job performance as well as construct a hostile, threatening or offensive working environment. For instance, offensive behaviour engage include comments of someone’s appearance or lifestyle, sexually comments about someone’s body, insinuation, leering and deliberate unwanted physical contact (The Advocates for Human Rights,2016)
Aims / Objectives I Wants To Achieve
The research proposal seeks to investigate the actual situation of sexual harassment at workplace. Sexual harassment is not necessarily limited to sexual desire and physical attractiveness because sexual harassment is used to bully and intimidate the victims. Hence, we can see that no one is safe from this issue. The aim of the research is to make people, whether young or old, experienced or inexperienced, new or old to have a better understanding of this issue so that they will be able to combat it effectively if ever they are found in a
Difficulty situation.

Also aim to show the reasons, how and why sexual harassment occurs. Investigating in the possible consequences and solutions available to combat this issue. Clearly sexual harassment will not stop by simply ignoring it. This ignorance will encourage harassers to continue and even excel in their wrongdoing. We highlight the fact that when sexual harassment occurs, it is the duty of the employer to protect and support the victims. Also aiming to address the fact that woman are being harassed a lot more than man.

Make sure that laws are enforced and victims are made free from all this form of harassment .The other aim we need to highlight is the equal rights amongst all workers and woman must be treated fairly. Addresses all issues that woman faces on daily basis.

Organizations should reinforce laws for the prohibition of sexual harassment. The latter should be regarded as an offence in workplaces and raise awareness of appropriate disciplinary measures that will be taken against the offender.

Discipline should act as a catalyst in the prevention and gradual elimination of sexual harassment. It should be clear to workers that this type of unethical behavior will not be tolerated at work. There should be different rules to deal with different situations. For example, where minor cases of sexual harassment are concerned, the harasser can be reprimanded and warned. However, in extreme cases, severe disciplinary actions like termination, demotion, reduction of wages, suspension, transfer or reassignment should be taken without any hesitation. (Uk ESSAYS, 23 march 2015)
The radical theories and the radical movements have vehemently demonstrated that knowledge cannot be considered neutral or objective .Traditionally, researchers have engendered knowledge on the basis of the dominant perspective and behavior in society, which was the male one (androcentric). As a consequence, knowledge has been blind to the specific historical, political, social and personal conditions on which it was reported, making invisible gender differences. Feminist epistemologies have claimed that knowledge is dynamic, relative and variable and that it cannot be considered an aim itself but a process.

Taking into account this idea, the theoretical and methodological proposal of this project is based on the following principles:
Gender inequalities and the promotion of women’s rights, interests and issues, are the common basis of the feminist studies and their epistemological concerns, despite the fact that there multiple meanings of gender and the concept of gender itself has been criticized (e.g. Butler, 2000; Brines, Connell and Eider, 2000);
violence against women “constitutes a violation of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women and impairs or nullifies their enjoyment of those rights and freedoms” (Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, UN, General Assembly Resolution 48/1004 of 20 December 2003);
There are many expressions of violence against women and new ones can appear according to the development of the social changes and the social dynamics;GVEI.

Theoretical framework 5
Violence against women has multiple and multidimensional effects, but all of them have the common denominator of being gender based;
From a radical perspective, the best way to know something about violence against women and its effects is by hearing the voices of the women that have experienced this phenomenon.

Social indicators as the framework of Gender Violence Effects Indicators
According to Gab’s, “social indicators can be understood as quantitative measurements of a social phenomenon, its presence or its absence in the social reality”. Indicators are quantitative data often presented as “statistical information chosen specifically to shed light on a specific economic, demographic or social problem/question. Indicators can be a single figure or distribution; figures can be expressed as numbers, percentages, rates or ratios”3. The challenge therefore, is to capture qualitative information and to transfer it into quantitative indicators to give visibility to a social phenomenon.

In this way, social indicators can be useful tools in planning, policy-making, research and general monitoring of social and living conditions. Stuart Rice4 contended that “Social indicators are needed to find pathways through the maze of society’s interconnections. They delineate social states, define social problems and trace social trends, which by social engineering may hopefully be guided towards social goals formulated by social planning”. In our view, this definition gathers two core elements of the rationality and purpose of social indicators, which can be applied in GVEI project:
Social indicators can have a descriptive function (description of social states and of trends in social change),
The analytical tools they can be for policy-making, planning and monitoring5.

On the basis of the above conception, the resulting indicators of GVEI should seek to describe and measure the multidimensional effects of GV in women’s life and, at the same time, serve for future planning and policy-making for the design of integral policy responses to this phenomenon and the women who suffer it
Sexual harassment is a very complicated issue. More often than not, the
Victims do not come forward to share their experiences. Sometimes the harassment
Comes with the threat of losing the job and the victim tolerates it with sealed lips.

At other times she may prefer to move on to another job and just forget about what
Had happened. It is important to have a good understanding of the topic as well as
The sensitivities of the respondents while soliciting their inputs on a sensitive topic
As the one undertaken here. Both primary and secondary data sources were used.

The methods used for collecting information included the following:
1. Focus Group Discussions were held with some middle management level officers
Of the Government of India. Their views and opinions were mainly solicited
Regarding their awareness pertaining to their rights and duties or responsibilities in
The light of this path breaking Act. Also, their suggestions as to how the provisions
Of this Act could be better implemented so as to make the workplace safer for the
Working women, were asked for.

2. Semi- structured Interviews with key stakeholders – among the staff and
Administration were held, which helped obtain individual experiences and ideas
Regarding this Act and the need for improvement, if any. Discussions were held 10
With the concerned officers / stakeholders of the Directorate General of Foreign
Trade, the Central Licensing Authority, the Post Graduate Institute of Medical
Education & Research (Dr R M L Hospital), as well as the Indian Institute of
Public Administration in Delhi.

3. These discussions were used to frame the Questionnaires that were administered to
Collect inputs (information/ responses) from all the stakeholders- victims, accused
And administrators.

4. Interviews were conducted to enable preparation of a few Case Studies. These
Were based on different situations (based on age or hierarchy), in which Sexual
Harassment was suffered and/or reported.

5. Review of Government documents and reports related to this subject, as well as
Articles in academic journals, books and newspapers was also undertaken.

A topic of this nature has to be dealt with great sensitivity. This is an exploratory
Research, which uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods.

Conclusion and Recommendation vs. Sexual harassment has been an important research topic for social scientists for over a decade, during which time a number of theoretical and empirical studies have been published. Despite this attention, it is nevertheless very difficult to determine from the literature with any degree of certainty the percentage of women who have experienced harassment recently, or a definitive list of the types of sexual harassment. As I will show in this paper, attempts to derive such basic information are stymied by several significant methodological problems shared by many research studies. A resolution of these problems is critical in order for social scientists to have a meaningful impact on legal and policy-related issues.

This paper has several goals:
(1) To examine the various methodological problems of previous research;
(2) To provide some reasonable estimates, given the limitations of the research literature, of the percentage of women who have experienced harassment, as well as the kinds of harassment they have experienced; and
(3) To outline a comprehensive categorization of sexual harassment types, along with a strategy for addressing the issue of harassment 236 Severity. This paper has been sparked by two concerns. First, as a researcher in the field, I have encountered substantial problems in attempting to compare the results of my research to those of others. Also, as a social scientist who has consulted on more than a dozen sexual harassment lawsuits, I have discovered significant gaps in our understanding of sexual harassment. It is, for example, difficult to give straightforward testimony about the severity or the typicalness of the types of harassment a recipient has experienced.
What is sexual harassment?
Since the beginning of this decade, most research studies have used the definitions of either the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EE- OC), or the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the Working Women Institute (WWI). According to the latter:
‘Sexual harassment is any repeated or unwanted verbal or physical sexual advances, sexually explicit derogatory statements, or sexually discriminatory remarks made by someone in the workplace which are offensive or objectionable to the recipient or which causes the recipient discomfort or humiliation or which interferes with the recipient’s job performance.’ (Cited in Brown, 1988: 451)
The guidelines are more stringent and specify that harassment exists not simply when there has been ‘unwanted or repeated verbal or physical sexual advances’ but when such advances have specific employment consequences, such as job loss or loss of job-related opportunities or the creation of an ‘intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment’ (EEOC 1980). These definitions, or ones which are very similar, have influenced the eighteen studies analyzed below. (For example, the Canadian Human Rights Act definition of sexual harassment is nearly identical to the EEOC definition.) There are, however, differences among the studies in how these definitions are employed methodologically.

A number of studies have followed the method adapted by The United States Merit Systems Protection Board (1981): on the basis of the EEOC guidelines, explicit categories of harassment (e.g., ‘requests for sexual favors’) were developed for a survey questionnaire and respondents were asked if they had experienced any of these forms of ‘un- wanted sexual attention’ in the past 24 months. Other studies discussed below presented respondents with a definition and asked them to describe any experiences they had had. While these studies have developed different methods for evoking recollections, and tabulating incidents of sexual harassment. The differences among the studies in terms of the incidence of harassment, or the number and types of harassment categories they include, are not so much a function of widely divergent conceptualizations of sexual harassment as of divergent methods of operationalizing similar conceptions of sexual harassment.
The harassment scales were positively skewed and kurtosis, which suggests that reports of sexual and racial harassment experiences were infrequent within the past year with vast dispersion in scores. To look at the proportion of the sample experiencing any of the various forms of harassment, we created dichotomous variables examining the presence or absence of any harassment and of each type of harassment. Notably, 89.1% of the sample reported (Woman and Therapy 7)
Experiencing one or both forms of harassment. Additionally, 66.7% reported at least one sexual harassment experience, and 78.3% reported at least one racial harassment experience in the past year. Among sexual harassment subtypes, unwanted sexual attention was most common (reported by 64.3%), followed by gender harassment (36.4%) and sexual coercion (24.8%).
Nicole T. Buchanan, Isis H. Settles, Ivan H. C. Wu ; Diane S

Understandably, workplace fierceness, as a form of sexual harassment, has a profound effect on the welfare and dignity of victim and those that depend on her for a living or for support. Indeed, violence against women in the workplace is an infraction of the rights of women because it diminishes their person, their social worth, and their
Opportunities to positively contribute to their society and realize their full potential. It was initially thought plainly to be an unwanted sexual act that transpires in discrete sets of time and circumstances. Contrary to such concept, this study found out that while sexual harassment against women is unwanted, the violence contained in the actions of perpetrators is intentional.
This attribution is critical for such implies that sexual harassment is an absolute infraction regardless of the perception and realization of perpetrators or victims, as workplace violence is the constitutive core of (the system of commission of) sexual harassment. Such is the case as workplace fierceness forms a host of temporal incidents of infractions, existing in varied forms. Workplace violence bears initial impact on and personal consequences to perpetrators, victims, and their social environment, and has local to national implications for security and order in workplaces and community.
The findings of this study are limited to its technical design. As a case exploration, this study did not aim at generalizing its findings but solely at contributing a reconceptualised framework of sexual harassment via workplace violence against women. Future researchers maybe interested to find out if these cases have disparate features with those cases filed in lower courts and reported in police stations. There is also a need to stress that the conceptual framework can further be formalized. (Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2016 De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines March 7-9, 2016)
References Provided by the Commission for Conciliation Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA)
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy 6 No 4 S2 July 2015© Workplace Answers 2018, 4030 W. Braker Lane, Building 2, Suite 250 Austin, TX 78759. Plops One. 2012; 7(12): e51424.
Published online 2012 Dec 11. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0051424 HYPERLINK “”

Aruna Kashyap, December 11, 2017 11:22AM EST
Labor Law and Employment Manual (2018), K., and Cortina, L. (2016) Sexual harassment; undermining the wellbeing of working women In Connelly, M., and Eu, J. (eds.) Handbook on well-being of working women. Dordrecht: Springer.
Home Office (2016) Police workforce, England and Wales (2017) Statistical bulletin 02/17 /police-workforce-sep16-hosb0217.pdf
House of Commons, Women and Equalities Committee (2016): Sexual harassment and sexual violence in schools: Third Report of Session 2016–17: 13 September 2016.
Independent Commission on Policing (2013) Policing for a better Britain. London: The Commission.

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