a.

A
paired-samples t test was performed to find out whether participation in a
creative writing course results in increased scores of a creativity assessment.
A total of 40 students completed a
pre-test, took the creativity course and then took a post-test. Results
indicated that the mean pret-test score (M = 40.15, SD = 8.30), was lower than
the post-test than score (M = 43.3, SD = 9.60) The mean difference was
statistically significant, t(39)   =  -2.67, p = .011.

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That
is, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that participation in a creative
writing course results in increased scores of a creativity assessment.

An independent sample t test was conducted
to compare pre-test and post-test scores in a creativity assessment. A total of
40 students took a pre-test scores and another sample of 40 students took a
pre-test score.  From the Levine’s Test
for equality of variances, significance level is   .429. This value is greater than .05 (The
significance level used in the test). This implies that the variances are
equal, we use the Equal variances assumed row in our analysis.The average score for students who took a post-test (M = 43.35, SD = 9.60)
was slightly higher than the average score for students who took a post (M =
40.15, SD = 8.30). However the mean difference was not statistically
significant, t(78)  =  – 1.595, p = .115. These results suggest that there is not
sufficient evidence to conclude that the average scores were equal between
those students who took a pre-test and the ones that took a post-test.

A
comparison of means test with t test was conducted.  The means compared were for the pre-test and
post-test scores in a creativity assessment. The first test assumed paired
samples and results indicated that the mean pret-test score (M = 40.15, SD =
8.30), was lower than the post-test than score (M = 43.3, SD = 9.60) The mean
difference was statistically significant, t(39)   =
-2.67, p = .011. The second test assumed independent samples. The
average score for students who took a post-test (M = 43.35, SD = 9.60) was
slightly higher than the average score for students who took a post (M = 40.15,
SD = 8.30). However the mean difference was not statistically significant,
t(78)  =
– 1.595, p = .115.

a.

An experiment was
conducted on the comparison of means using independent and dependent tests.
Both tests used the same data set. With the dependent t test the researcher
wanted to find out whether participation in a creative writing leads to
increased scores of a creativity assessment. Participants took a pre-test, took
a creativity course and then too the post-test.
Only 40 participants were involved in the experiment. Independent t
test, using the same results assumed two independent samples. That is, 40
students took the pre-test and another different group of 40 students took the
post test. The aim of the test was to compare the means of the two groups of
students.

The
paired samples t test found statistically significant difference between the
mean pret-test score (M = 40.15, SD = 8.30), and the mean post-test than score
(M = 43.3, SD = 9.60), t(39)   =  -2.67, p = .011. This showed that
participation in a creative writing course resulted in increased scores of a
creativity assessment. The independent t test results indicated that average
score for students who took a post-test (M = 43.35, SD = 9.60) was not
statistically different from the average score for students who took a
post-test (M = 40.15, SD = 8.30), t(78)
=  – 1.595, p = .115. There is no
enough evidence to conclude that the
average scores were equal between those students who took a pre-test and the
ones that took a post-test.

AS expected the findings from the
two tests were not the same. The paired samples t test found a significant
difference between the means, while the independent samples t test results did
not find significance in the mean difference between the two groups that
participated in the creativity assessment.  Pairing reduces
variability and hence make more precise comparisons with fewer subjects. When
we use independent samples, the difference between treatment means is compared
to the variability of individual responses within each treatment group. This
might have caused the difference in the results obtained by the two tests.   With paired samples, the between-subject
variability will be reduced. Since variability is reduced by using paired
samples, dependent t test may then give more precise results.