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Abstract

Have
you ever thought about how life would be without passion ? Would athletes enjoy
their sport, would artists enjoy painting, would entrepreneurs enjoy their
endeavors? Along with the other affective and emotional dimension, passion is
at the heart of entrepreneurship. Passion is a central
element of the entrepreneurial process. Every individual has a passion in life.
Some individuals chase towards it considering as an ultimate goal in life and some
do ignore it with the passage of time and other commitments. This study relates
to uncover the backings to passion that plays a great role on firm’s
entrepreneurial engagement. Understanding how does an entrepreneurs self-
identify their role and experience through passion. How
can an entrepreneur’s drive for passion bring true commitment towards his/ her
workplace and work ? . It explores a framework on what factors determine the
individual’s engagement on entrepreneurship.

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Keywords : Entrepreneurship
, Entrepreneurs , Passion

 

Background

Entrepreneurship
provides a platform for small businesses to uncover new business opportunities
and the discovery of new business opportunities enhances their differentiation
from other firms (Kosa & Mohammed. 2017) , but some of the owners of established
firms are not entrepreneurs . Being an entrepreneur is not something an
individual is just born with. Entrepreneurs like Steve Jobs , Mark Zuckerberg
and Bill Gates are some of the great entrepreneurs in today’s time , we think
of these people as people with extraordinary gifts and talents but these people
were truly driven by passion. Passion is considered integral in
Entrepreneurship because it can “fuel motivation , enhance mental activity, and
provide meaning to everyday work” (Kosa & Mohammed 2017). Passion has long
been recognized as a central component of entrepreneurial motivation and
success (Cardon et al , 2005). Passion is a means
to achieve high levels of performance is a means to overcome barriers to change
(Kosa & Mohammed 2017). Experiencing passion is typical of many successful entrepreneurs;
it is the “fire of desire” that drives their daily efforts (Nicola et al , 2012) and motivates them to persist in
the face of obstacles (Nicola et al , 2012).This had led to openings of new
ideas and innovations to upfront the field of business or entrepreneurship to a
new level or phase. Passion has often made entrepreneurs think from different
perspectives which no one has ever thought about.

Interest
in entrepreneurial passion is growing since the passion has been demonstrated
to drive tenacious pursuit of goals and to inspire stakeholders to support
ventures. (Kosa & Mohammed , 2017) . The passion for exploring new
entrepreneurship activities can invite more stakeholders , banks and other
financial institutions to invest more into ventures. The activity of exploring new
market ideas, sourcing founding capital, and establishing and developing new
products is highly undertaken by the owner/managers of established firms. That
is why passion is important not only to enter a new business, but also
important to involve in entrepreneurial activity by established firms to
survive and grow.

An
increased attention from researchers has been focused on entrepreneurial
passion on how to exploit every opportunity for profit earning. It is very
important to understand how an entrepreneurs passion can be merged with his/her
employees individual objectives in such way that both passion and objectives
are achieved by working towards organizational objectives. An employee
commitment is crucial for the success of entrepreneurial firms (Nicola et al , 2012), and understanding how employees
perceptions towards an entrepreneurial’s passion can motivate their commitment
to new ventures. Since entrepreneurs and employees are in frequent and direct
contact with other , the entrepreneurs passion will substantially impact the
employee’s behavior  and commitment
(Nicola et al ,2012). Thus, progressing on the achievement of passion.

In
certain cases , to attract customers , ventures who deal with the production of
consumer goods often express their passion for products . One of the best
examples is Starbucks , it emphasizes it passion for people through its
products and creating a “third place” where people can relax and make connections
, not just get coffee.(Xiao-Ping Chen et al., 2009).

Passion
plays a very important role in case of non- profit organisations sector were
the entrepreneurs do not receive any gains in terms of financial profits. In
such cases , passion can only drive an entrepreneur to start up such ventures
without any expectation of money but expecting a immense happiness.

Passion
is a strong indicator of how motivated an entrepreneur is towards achieving it.
Each entrepreneur has various kinds of passion . It need not be only focused on
business activities such starting up a business , earning high profits etc. It
can be also be about having an one’s own library with various fictions &
non-fiction novels , A huge pile of achievement like medals , certificates
& medals , having a music band , becoming a pilot , study in a well
renowned college etc. An entrepreneur has goals as passion which can either be
related to business or non-business activities. Thus, passion is intangible and
hard to measure quality that is possessed in an individual.(Xiao-Ping Chen et al., 2009).

Literature Review

The four common aspects of passion which most of the
researchers have identified and is common in most of the researches are :-

1) is wholly or partly a strong emotion that

2) encapsulates a host of different and mixed
emotions,

3) is directed toward or focused around a specific
object, and

4) has motivational effect.

 

Definition
of Passion

Passion is when you put more energy into something
than is required to do it. It more than just enthusiasm or excitement, passion
is ambition that is materialized into action to put as much heart , mind, body
and soul into something as is possible. It is a strong or extravagant fondness
, enthusiasm , or desire for anything. It is a state of being acted upon or
affected by something external , especially something alien to one’s nature or
one’s customary behavior. Passion includes specific emotions such as hope,
pride, anger, frustration , regret, and grief, or strong emotional responses based
on liking or love (Cardon et al , 2005).

Origin
of Passion

What turns you on , so to speak? This differs from
each person , yet we understand what each others means when we use the word
“Passion”. This word has had various meaning through the passage of time. The
origination of the “passion” and “passionate” came from the Latin word
“passionem” which was considered for a long time along with martyrdom. It was
considered as a passion of a person to suffer difficulty yet the nature of the
spirit would last and still have passion. It is basically the symbolic
representation of Christ on the cross and the “passion of Christ”.

Nature
of Passion

Some researchers believed that Passion is all about an
enduring state of emotional state, such as a feeling of enthusiasm, joy, zeal (Cardon et al , 2005), while some thought it has to do
more with Unconditional love which do not judge and expect (David et al , 2011)
and some suggested that it occurs due to failures (Cardon et al , 2005).Moreover
, all three episodic emotions of passion are important , but its not
necessarily consistent with one another.

 

Relation
between Entrepreneurial Passion and Happiness

Passion
involves being engaged in “consciously accessible positive intense feelings
experienced by engagement in entrepreneurial activities associated with roles
that are meaningful and salient to the self-identity of the entrepreneur” (Cardon
et al , 2008) On the other side , Happiness is a major life goal.( Andrea et al , 2015). Both of them goes hand in hand .
Entrepreneurial passion gives an entrepreneur a reason to keep learning and to
work towards master. It gives the reason to discover the new experiences which
is the key to happiness .To pursue one’s passion there are a lot of struggles
but those struggles are a source of joy and happiness when its all about
progressing towards your passion. Entrepreneurial passion not only brings
happiness to an entrepreneur but also inspires and brings vicarious pleasures
to the employees and onlookers. When an entrepreneur is so passionate about his/her
venture , his/her hard work and effortless dedication will give bring a true
happiness for an entrepreneur when the end results are positive.

Linking Entrepreneur’s Passion with
Entrepreneurial engagement

Passion
is considered as an entrepreneurial key. Entrepreneurs are known to be passion,
and this passion has been argued by scholars to be an important and even
central element in entrepreneurship (Imran et al , 2015). It is a natural
phenomena that an entrepreneurial passion will ultimately bring in
entrepreneurial engagement towards the entrepreneur’s venture. Entrepreneurial
engagement is the involvement of an entrepreneur towards the business
activities and the efforts put in by him for the development of the business.
Entrepreneurial
engagement involves the discovery, evaluation, and exploitation of
opportunities by individuals (Kosa and Mohammed , 2017). Entrepreneurial
passion is more of venture- related such as roles , self identity , recognition
that adds meaning to the entrepreneur’s engagement. Most of the entrepreneurs
engage into work for identity and recognition which can also be an ultimate
passion for some of the entrepreneurs. Identity plays an integral role since it
involves the finding of personal meaning in the activities one is engaged in
the business because it may help in bringing out the central characteristic of
a person’s sense of who they are as an individual (Kosa and Mohammed , 2017). “When
an entrepreneur’s attachment is strong, the entrepreneur is likely to respond
to cues in the venture that others may not notice, feeling every pain of the
new venture, and taking every attack on it personally” (Cardon et al , 2008).
As said by Melissa , when an entrepreneur is completely engaged in his/her day
to day business activities , there would be a bond and sense of belonging
towards the venture and the other functions within . Therefore, Entrepreneurial
passion is related with entrepreneurial engagement.

 

 

Entrepreneurial Identity and Passion

Entrepreneurial
identity refers to a set of meanings about a person which includes the attitude
and behavior that defines an entrepreneur in an entrepreneurial role. Identity
is refered as an social role which an individual longs to achieve . Passion
helps an entrepreneur in creating his/ her own identity which leads to
recognition among the other competiting entrepreneurs in the market.

Entrepreneurial
passion the comprises positive and penetrating feelings focused on activities related
with roles that are critical to the self-identity of entrepreneurs (Cardon et
al , 2011). It is said that entrepreneur’s passion is connected with
entrepreneurial identity (Murnieks et al , 2014). Identity enables am individual to
understand what it means to be an “entrepreneur”. It makes an entrepreneur
understand how important is his/her identity and tries to make an individual
passionate about his/her identity. The identity symbolizes the behaviors and
senses attached to certain social categories such as “entrepreneur” or “father”
, “doctor” etc. Every individual first tries to learn how the society accepts
their role. Identities are formed when an individual accepts them into his /
her perceptive representation (Murnieks et al , 2014). In other words, an
entrepreneurial identity forms when an individual adopts the peripherical meanings
associated with the entrepreneurial role and makes those meanings self-defining
and that’s when the individual begins to call himself or herself an “entrepreneur.”

Passion
is related to identity; and that entrepreneurial passion is linked with
entrepreneurial identity (Murnieks et al , 2014). Here the question arises as
to what aspects of an identity influences the entrepreneur’s passion. In order
to debate on the topic , since entreprenuer’s passion is linked with
entrepreneur’s identity . Therefore, the importance of entrepreneurial identity
rises and falls for specific individuals , so will their passion.

Passion
is tied to activities that are considered important to individuals identity. It
stands to reason that factors influencing the importance of activities might
also influence the passion experienced. Higher the importance of identity
activities , higher would be the passion involved and vice versa.

 

Research of Passion in
Entrepreneurship

Three
scholars have identified passion among entrepreneurs in three various ways. But
none of the links connect with entrepreneurial passion, individual behavior and
the outcomes. Firstly, Baum conceptualized 
entrepreneurial passion, or love for work, as one component amid three
personality traits of entrepreneurs and analyzed the links between a composite
of those traits and overall venture growth.(Murnieks et al ,2014). Secondly,
Baum along with Locke have identified 
the individual effect of passionate love for work on a firm’s growth.
But later they realized that passionate love for work does not affect the
venture directly but works through a different pathways more appropriate to an
individual behavior such as motivation, goals and self efficiency. (Murnieks et
al , 2014). Thirdly , Chen evaluated entrepreneurial passion or immense display
of emotions in venture capitalist decisions to invest in new businesses.

In
all the three studies about passion there were different conceptualization of
passion. The aim of the research was study the relationship between individual
passion and organizational or other-focused outcome variable. All the three
studies didn’t find any direct relationship passion and individual outcomes
which is intriguing. In one of the psychological research done by Vallerand and
colleagues which was closely related to passion and individual attitudes and
behaviors in order to push the analysis of entrepreneur’s passion to individual
level of analysis. One of the reasons why there was no direct relationship
found in the prior studies is because identity concept were not clearly
considered. It is concluded that entrepreneurial identity are the key factors
that influences the rise or fall of passion.

 

Methodology

If
I were to conduct this study , the best method I would choose to do so would be
Qualitative method. I would choose to do Interview (Cardon et al, 2011) and
collection of data through Observation. By using, interview method it would be
easier to understand the how passion is related with Happiness for an
Entrepreneur and in what ways does it bring them happiness. There are chances
were an entrepreneur might talk about his aims and the efforts put in by him to
gain identity which satisfies him and the society. I would use Observation
method to gain knowledge by studying the linkage between Entrepreneur’s passion
and entrepreneurial engagement. This helps in understanding how passion brings
motivation towards doing a dedicated work 
at the venture. How actively he exploits every opportunity in the economy
for the benefit of the firm which gives a clear picture of the bonding towards the
business.

 

Conclusion

This
whole study was all about “Does passion drives entrepreneur’s Happiness ?”. Well
to an extent I would agree upon the fact that Passion does bring happiness to employees
through various kinds of ways. As discussed above , an entrepreneur’s engagement
towards work can portray his love towards his firm and how he encourages his employees
by getting work done. But further research needs to be done whether passion arises
due to identity and recognition or out of love for which brings immense happiness
without any expectation in return. As per my understanding, Passion arises for every
individual out of love for something or someone and not to gain identity.

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