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ABSTRACT                  

Gun is a normally
tubular weapon or other device designed to
discharge projectiles or other material. The projectile may be
solid, liquid, gas or energy and may be free, as with bullets and artillery
shells, or captive as with taster probes and whaling harpoons.

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The means of projection
varies according to design but is usually affected by the action of gas
pressure, either produced through the rapid combustion of
a propellant or compressed and stored by mechanical means, operating
on the projectile inside an open-ended tube in the fashion of a piston.

So in short, it directly harms the other one &
damage the person animal or object, but basically our project is to not harm
them, make them unconscious and catch them.

It is a air pressurized launcher which includes air
tank to launch from a single barrel steal pipe, in which we going to insert
electric shock bullet which make the person, animal, or to catch object.

The air pressure launcher will be fully automatic in
operation i.e. we are going to operate it from the computer or by sitting on
another place. The movement of the launcher will consist of two servo motor
with the help of shaft encoder or rotary encoder.

 

 

 

Keywords used are: Air pressure mechanism, biometric sensor, arduino, relay, push pull
electromagnet, motors, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

    INTRODUCTION

The main motive of this project
is to build a non-destructible launcher which doesn’t cause harm in extreme
physical level instead it makes the target unconscious for a certain period of
time. The air launcher can be an important part of
the gun structure.

Basic laws of thermodynamics and
mechanics are used to analyze an air launcher. Such devices are often employed
in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch desired material using compressed
gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically.

     Air Pressurized Launchers are generally
more powerful than combustion guns. A typical combustion gun generates average
chamber pressures of about 30 psi (210 kPa) with peaks of around
70–100 psi (500–700 kPa), while the average Air Pressurized Launcher
can operate at pressures in the vicinity of 100 psi (700 kPa). In
recent times, it has become increasingly common for metal Air Pressurized
Launcher to use even higher pressures, sometimes up to 500 psi
(3.4 MPa) or higher. The range of pneumatic cannons is more variable than
the range of combustion spud guns due to the increased variation possible in
the components. Typical ranges are slightly higher because of the greater
power, but the maximum range of some high power pneumatic cannons has been said
to be over 1,000 meters (1,100 yd).

 Possible Application of the Project are in
fields of    Military, Animal Trapper,
Catching thief, Girls Safety, Police Use.

 

 

 

 LITERATURE SURVEY

1The given paper “Internal ballistics of pneumatic potato cannon” states that Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used
to analyze an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics
demonstrations to launch Potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to
expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with
reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible
to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics. Potato
cannons are a popular construction project for physics demonstrations and
science fairs. They can be powered in three different ways: by compressed gas
(which is the type analyzed in the present paper), by an explosive propellant
or by a sudden vacuum breaking. In the first, pneumatic case, the projectile
can be modeled as a piston accelerating down the bore of a horizontal cylinder
under the action of pressurized gas, taken to be ideal for simplicity. Three
equations are used for the analysis: Newton’s second law, the ideal gas law and
the first law of thermodynamics. Additional simplifying approximations are that
the piston slides frictionless and no gas leaks around its edges (as should be
appropriate for a thick, wet potato slice that is forcibly fit to the bore);
atmospheric pressure is negligible compared to the gas pressure (while the
piston is in the bore); the gas expansion occurs quasistatically and
adiabatically (i.e., without heat leakage to the surroundings). Some of these assumptions
can be lifted by performing a numerical rather than an analytic analysis, and such
extensions could become attractive classroom projects with different possible
levels of sophistication. The key result is that the speed of the projectile
levels off after the volume of the gas has expanded to a few times its initial,
compressed value and so there is no point in making the bore longer than that.
(In fact, a longer bore would be disadvantageous because of the effects of
friction and atmospheric pressure.)

To enhance the muzzle speed, one should maximize the
product of the initial pressure and volume of the propellant gas and decrease
the projectile mass, according to equation. To compare the theoretical results
obtained in this paper to experiment, one would need to make measurements while
the projectile is internally travelling down the bore of the cannon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 One possibility is to measure the temperature
or pressure of the propellant gas for comparison to equations .That would
require a fast sensor because the potato leaves the barrel in less than 50 ms
after firing. A more direct technique consists in measuring the speed of the projectile
at several points along the bore for comparison to equation. The simplest way to
do that would be to use photo gates mounted along the length of  a transparent cannon, such as one made out of
an acrylic tube. Additional useful experimental measurements include estimating
the frictional loss between a potato and the bore, and the leakage of
compressed gas around the potato. On the theoretical side, one could account
for the acceleration of the air column behind the projectile or determine by
how much the gas pressure (and hence piston speed) increases if the expansion
occurs not adiabatically but isothermally .Here, in this paper, how to make
an air pressurized gun i.e. potato canon gun and shows various uses of the same
with its different benefits.

 (Carl E Mungan, Published 9 March 2009)

 

 

2The given paper
presents a “Pneumatic Launcher”
for instrumented objects includes a barrel, a breech amber having a compressed
gas reservoir, a pneumatic piston operated valve for discharging gas from the
reservoir into the barrel and is characterized by a fail-safe venting feature
and a throttling valve for automatically limiting acceleration of the launched
object. This invention relates to the
field of pneumatic guns or launchers for expelling an object or device by the
rapid expansion of air or other compressed gas, and more particularly to an
improved launcher suitable to be carried by a ship or submarine for launching
devices such as sonorous or other instrument packages either above or below
water. Pneumatic guns and launchers of the type including a
barrel, air storage means, and valve means for rapidly releasing the stored air
into the barrel behind a projectile or object to be expelled have been known for
some time. Those devices have had one or more shortcomings, when considered for
use aboard a ship or submarine, including lack of provision for charging and
firing control from a remote panel and lack of fail-safe provisions to prevent
inadvertent discharge upon failure of

   

  

 piston seals or the like. In addition, the
known devices have been of such construction that the initial acceleration of
the projectile or package is greater than can be safely tolerated by sensitive
instrumentation components and assemblies. Summary of The Invention:
With the foregoing in mind, it is a principal object of this invention to
provide an improved pneumatic launcher device suitable for use in launching
objects or instruments, either above or below water, from a ship or submarine.
Another and important object of the invention is
the provision of a pneumatic launcher having pneumatic remote control
capability for charging and discharging of the launcher. Yet another object is
the provision of a pneumatic launcher device that is fail-safe in operation, whereby
leakage of air past certain seals, valves or pistons will not result in
inadvertent firing or discharge. As still another object, the invention aims to
provide an improved pneumatic launcher of the foregoing character and further
having means for automatically limiting and regulating the pressure developed
in the barrel behind the projectile so as to avoid excessive acceleration, or
g-forces, and damage to sensitive instrumentation.                                                   (US 4951644A, David R. Bon,1990)

 

 

3The given paper presents “Air Rocketry System” Air rocketry involves the flight
of rockets using compressed air as the motive force for the vehicles. This
method for propelling rockets is relatively inexpensive when compared to rockets
that burn fuel contained in rocket motors. Also, the items used in the
construction of these rockets are inexpensive. This translates into lots of
science and math activities for little cost. Moreover, these projects are tons
of fun. Two types of  rockets are
presented in this paper. One is constructed from paper and the other from
plastic bottles. Each use tape, metallic washers, and cardboard.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

The rocket launcher used for high-pressure paper
rockets may be used to launch all units, while a simpler low-pressure launcher
manufactured from PVC should be used only to launch low pressure rockets.
Launch pressures for low-pressure rockets should not exceed 80 psi. Forty to
sixty psi normally provides adequate performance. Consequently, the rocket will
develop a tear or portions of the rocket may be blown into confetti. For this
reason, keep everyone behind the launcher during flight operations. Because
tremendous force and velocities are generated during the flights of these
rockets, caution should be exercised to prevent personal injury and damage to
property. Medium-pressure rockets have been timed at 100-plus miles per hour
with the maximum speed registering 170 mph! Speed trials of high pressure paper
rockets are pending..Standard units purchased at
department stores may only generate around 80 psi of pressure. To purchase a
high-pressure pump, contact a bicycle store. One brand and model of pump that
works well is the Zéfal HP Husky. This pump has a steel cylinder with a cast
base. It may be rebuilt by installing new parts associated with the piston. The
pump also includes a pressure gauge. Construction
characteristics of a quality high pressure pump include a cylinder that has a
rather small diameter. If the pump has a large diameter cylinder, the pressure
will quickly build to around 80 psi and then it will take a great deal of
exertion to attain a launch pressure of 250 psi or more. If you are planning to
use an air compressor, be aware that many have features that will prevent the
pump from reaching pressure greater than 125 psi. From this paper we
came to know the basic making of air pressurized launcher or rocket. So that we
can make use this knowledge in constructing our air pressured launcher.

(Charley Rodriguez, Ph.D.Jim Raynovic, MS,2000)

 

 

 

Fig.:1 Construction
of Air Pressure Launcher

 

METHODOLOGY

 

Current scenario:

We inspired this projects by see air pressured
chemically operated gun this gun only used 
to catch unwanted animals. We will make this gun fully automated with
the help of  biometric sensor so we are
completed almost 50% only left to attach the biometric sensor ,spring and
design of the bullets .The bullet have pin 
which is attach the body or chemicals needles which is not harm full the
human body. Currently the structure of the launcher is made & the air
pressurised tank is made done. The circuitry of the bullet is made with the
help of capacitor charging property which is used to store the charge and
create electric shock The tank is air pressured tank which is self made is
capable to through the bullet up to 20meters whereas the range can be increased
by filling more air pressure in the tank. This thing can be recreated in future scope.

 

Proposed
Technology Solution:

In 2009 there is an potato gun is made which
was also in one of the air pressurized launcher but that was not in use anymore
from that day now in 2017 we are making air pressure launcher with multiple
bullets. This launcher can be extended for fully automatic air launcher. In
future scope this can make its own order for identification of person or animal
by camera sensing technology.

 

 

 

COMPONENTS USED:

 

SOFTWARE:
Arduino

 

    Arduino is an open
source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that
designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits
for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control
objects in the physical world.

 

 

Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors
and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O)
pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and other circuits. The
boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial
Bus (USB) on some models, which
are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The
microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from the
programming languages C and C++. In
addition to using traditional compiler tool chains, the Arduino project
provides an integrated
development environment (IDE)
based on the Processing language project.

 

 

HARDWARE:

          Table
1. Hardware Requirement:

 

Sr. no.

COMPONENTS
USED:

RATINGS

·        
 

Relay
 

5V DC

·        
 

Biometric
Sensor
 

TTL+

·        
 

 
RF
module
 

4-10V

·        
 

 
Stepper
motor (2)
 

2.8V,15kg
torque

·        
 

 
Push-pull
electromagnet
 

2V DC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                    Fig2: Graph

 

Designing
of Block Diagram:

Fig3:Block
diagram of the system

 

Designing of model:

The
launcher design will be in the shape of single barrel gun. The body of the gun
is made of wood and the barrel is made of the steel pipe. The steel pipe will
be connected by the air pressured tank, this is to fire or launch the bullet.
This launcher also consist of an fully 360 degree rotary surface, which makes
it fully automatic air launcher.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALGORITHM:

       
I.           
Initially collected all the
information and data of the components used in the project.

     II.           
Firstly making shape of the
gun and cutting wooden plywood according to it.

   III.           
Making of air pressure tank
with the help of bottle and fixing it on top of the gun.

  IV.           
Cutting trigger shape on
cardboard and then finally making it on the metal sheet.

     V.           
Adjusting trigger on the
gun and further will also  establish auto
trigger mechanism.

  VI.           
Making the base of the
project on a wooden sheet or plywood. From the base, the gun will rotate 360o
and also will move horizontally and vertically.

VII.           
After the hardware part of
the project, progressing of the software part of the project by interfacing
stepper motor,RF module and other components with the Arduino and then with the
gun.

VIII.           
Accomplishing of  bullet and amalgamating it with the gun.

  IX.           
Finalizing bullet with the
gun and fixing and adjusting it with the base.

     X.           
Testing the gun automatically
and manually with air pressure.

 

FLOW of the PROJECT:

Fig.:4

 

RESULTS:  

 

It will be a biometrically operated air pressurized
launcher that will fire a bullet at a particular speed as per requirement of
the user.

So the project is, completely automated and also
with manual alignment functionality, a pressurized air gun that has a strike
range of 10-20 meters is developed.

 

CONCLUSION:

 

Biometric
technology in gun or air pressure gun makes it safe from unwanted use. It is an
air pressure guns i.e. no need of explosives to fire any bullet. Biometric
technology has great potential

There
are many biometric products around, regarding the different biometric
technologies, but the use of biometric sensor I gun makes it safe. Shortcoming
of biometric system due to manufacturer ignorance of security concerns, lack of
quality control, standardization problems biometrics is very promising. Owner
of the launcher only can fire these types of launchers.         

 

 

 

FUTURE SCOPE:

• It can
be further modified into a Jet propulsion system

• Firing
rate and its frequency can be controlled for different applications.

• It can
be also used at remote places where human presence is hazardous with the help
of computer guided systems.

• This can
be used for Sand Blasting, Dryers and Water jet cutting.

 

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