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ABSTRACT

A Polyhouse is a
building where plants are grown. Polyhouses are often used for growing flowers,
vegetables and fruits plant. Basic factors affecting plant growth are humidity,
water content in soil, temperature, etc. These physical elements are hard to
control manually within a Polyhouse and a need for automated prototype arises.
Polyhouse automatic control is imperative for the plants to provide them with proper
nutrients in the controlled manner. To monitor the greenhouse environment
parameters effectively, it is necessary to plan a control system. It
communicates with the a variety of sensor modules in order to maintain  the temperature, humidity and soil moisture
efficiently inside a greenhouse by operating a cooler, fogger, dripper and
lights according to the necessary condition of the crops. Many different
techniques have been proposed and implemented for this purpose. This paper
mainly reviews different  present
Greenhouse Monitoring and control systems.

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1. INTRODUCTION

 In this modern era of industrialization,
agriculture plays a notable role on the overall socio-economic development of
India. The backbone of Indian Economy is Agriculture.43% of India’ s territory
comes under agricultural lands. Around 52% of India’ s population is getting
employment only because of agriculture along with other  related fields like forestry and logging .
Agriculture also accounts for 8.56% of the country’ s total exports. According
to a survey made in 2007, agriculture accounts for 16.6% of India’ s Gross
Domestic Product. In India, the most influential field as compared to others is
agriculture, which perhaps needs more emphasis on better agricultural practices.
Crop growth is mainly influenced by the surrounding environmental climatic
variables, the amount of water supplied and the fertilizers used for
irrigation. By regular monitoring of the soil conditions and environmental
conditions the quality of agriculture can be increased. Polyhouse is ideal for
proper plant growth and high yield of the crop, where the climatic ingredients
can be controlled automatically. Polyhouse cultivation is the modern, intensive
and is considered highly productive and environment friendly agriculture
practice. Polyhouses are constructed by assigning an ultraviolet plastic sheet
of thickness 1501m which lasts for a minimum of 5 years. It is constructed  using bamboos or iron pipes. In general the
length of polyhouses is 25-30 feet and width of 4-5 feet. The size of the
polyhouse may vary according to the requirement. Mostly the polyhouses are
always directed towards East to West which allows the polyhouse to utilize the
maximum sunlight. Irrespective of the season the temperature and humidity
levels can be a-utomatically controlled in the polyhouse thus resulting in
proper plant growth and high yield of the crop. The existing variations in the
demand and supply of off-season for vegetables and fruits can be lowered by
adopting automation and moden machinery.

2. Proposed
Technologies

2.1 Wireless Solution
for Polyhouse Cultivation Using Embedded System

2.1.1 INTRODUCTION

In this, the continuous
monitoring and control of environmental parameters inside the polyhouse using
mobile communication is proposed. To fulfill this requirement of providing
proper temperature inside the polyhouse, the environmental parameter sensors
such as temperature sensor and humidity sensor are used. These sensors provides
the information about temperature and humidity inside the polyhouses, these
sensors are used with AT89S52 microcontroller which continuously receive the
data from sensors and whenever the received values goes beyond the given
threshold value, cooling fans will be turned on to lower the temperature and
increase humidity and vice versa as the system is programmed accordingly. The
same information is conveyed to the farmer and central monitoring and control
unit of PC using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). The architecture
of the proposed system has been shown in Fig 1.

 

 

2.1.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
By short message service (SMS) the status
of environmental fators and  varying
threshold values of polyhouse can be controlled from any remote location using
the farmer mobile phone.

·        
The reduced human effort and ideal state
of environmental parameters inside the polyhouse can be observed in its
results.

·        
By using the proposed system, the farmer
can easily keep the desired crop’s environment conditions.

2.1.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not check the soil moisture
which is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse , proper control of light is important as light is
very important for photosynthesis.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.2 Design and
Development of Embedded System for Measurement of Humidity, Soil Moisture and
Temperature in Polyhouse using 89E516RD Microcontroller

2.2.1 INTRODUCTION

This research work
mainly consists of design and development of an embedded system for polyhouse
application. This system includes 89E516RD microcontroller with three sensors
such as humidity sensor (SY-HS-220), soil moisture sensor (YL-69) and temperature
sensor (PT100) employed inside polyhouse 5, 6, 7. Signal conditioning
circuits of respective sensor, data acquisition system, display unit and
controlling section have been properly designed. The software required for
sensor data acquisition, display and to control humidity, temperature and soil
moisture inside polyhouse by using suitable hardware of the system is developed
by using Keil µ-vision IDE 8. The designed system is used for measurement of
the mentioned environment condition and results are interpreted. The
architecture of this system is shown in fig 2.

2.2.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
It provides accurate measurement of
humidity, soil moisture and temperature and also provides automated control
action.

·        
This can satisfy more accuracy for
medium and large area based polyhouses.

2.2.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse , proper control of light is important as light is
very important for photosynthesis.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.3 AUTOMATION IN
POLYHOUSE USING PLC        

2.3.1INTRODUCTION

In this system three
types of sensors are implemented . The sensors to be used are photodiodes, a
temperature sensor and a humidity sensor. These sensors will be connected to a
PLC which will function as the main control unit. The sensors will send signals
to the plc and the plc will translate the signals and determine if the input is
within the preset range. For instance, if the preset temperature range is from
20°C to 25°C, the plc will make sure that the polyhouse temperature is
within  this range. If the temperature exceeds
the maximum value, the plc will then turn on the fan. If the temperature drops
below the minimum value, the bulb will turn on. As for the photodiode, if the
polyhouse is exposed to insufficient light, it will send a signal to the plc.
The plc will then process the signal and turn on the artificial light in the
polyhouse. As for the humidity sensor, it will detect a change in humidity
levels of soil and send a signal to the plc. If the humidity level is not
within the required range, the water supply will be turned on or off. The plc
will be the central processing unit which will translate the input signals from
the sensors and turn on or off the necessary devices to maintain the polyhouse
at the preset levels.

2.3.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
This ensures that the environment inside
the polyhouse is suitable for productive uses.

·        
This helps improve crop quality and
quantity. 

2.3.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not check the soil moisture
which is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.4 Design of Remote
Monitoring and Control System with Automatic Irrigation System using
GSM-Bluetooth

2.4.1 INTRODUCTION

In this system both GSM
and Bluetooth modules are interfaced with the main controller chip. GSM is used
for remotely monitoring and controlling the devices via a mobile phone by
sending and receiving SMS via GSM network. Bluetooth is used for the same
purpose but within a range of few meters, say when user is inside the periphery
of the building where the system is installed, Bluetooth can be used for
communicating with the devices thereby eliminating the network usage cost. The
motor pumps and fans are controlled automatically using sensor and the other
appliances are controlled by Bluetooth or GSM network via SMS. The system
informs user about any abnormal conditions like low water detection and
temperature rise via SMS from the GSM Module      to the user’s mobile and actions are
taken accordingly by the user. The architecture of this system is displayed in
fig 4

Fig 4. Block Diagram of
Remote Monitoring and Control System with Automatic Irrigation system using
GSM-Bluetooth

2.4.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
There is no network usage cost.

·        
Efficient utilization of power.

2.4.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
The farmer has to be educated about how
to use the technology.

·        
Implementation cost is higher.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.5 PIC Microcontroller
Based Greenhouse Monitoring and Control System

2.5.1 INTRODUCTION

proposed system
aim  is to design a Microcontroller-based
circuit to monitor and record the values of temperature, humidity, soil
moisture level and Sunlight of the natural environment that are continuously
modified and it is get controlled in order optimize them  to achieve maximum plant growth and yield.
Controlling process takes place effectively. Depending upon the application, we
will set particular threshold level for each climatic parameter. When any of
parameters level cross a safety threshold then microcontroller will perform the
needed action by employing relay until the strayed-out parameter has been
brought back to its optimum level. The block diagram below shows how the inputs
section (sensors) is connected into the microcontroller through an arrow, the
arrow indicate that data is passing through the microcontroller. The output
section is connected out of the microcontroller through the arrow. Furthermore,
the input section are assign to their own pins in the microcontroller and
processed to give an output, while output section are assign to their own pins
in the microcontroller, to archive the construction of greenhouse control
device.E2PROM is also connected to microcontroller for storing the values of
various parameters present at that situation.

Fig 5: Block diagram of
PIC Microcontroller based Greenhouse Monitoring and Control system

2.5.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
Provides real time application .

·        
Beneficial for farmers of many
developing countries.

2.5.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
Implementation cost is high.

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse , proper control of light is important as light is
very important for photosynthesis.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.6 Greenhouse
Management Using Embedded System and Zigbee Technology

2.6.1 INTRODUCTION

The system model
consists of sensors, microcontroller, interface such as relay and actuators.
Actuators such as ventilation fan, sprayer, heater, water pump, artificial
lights are used. Our proposed system aim is to 
design a microcontroller-based circuit to monitor and record the values
of temperature, humidity, soil moisture level and sunlight of the natural
environment that are continuously modified and it is get controlled in order
optimize them to achieve maximum plant growth and yield. Controlling process
takes place effectively by both automatically and manually. Depending upon the
application, we will set particular threshold level for each climatic
parameter. when any of parameters level cross a safety threshold then
microcontroller will perform the needed action by employing relay(motor driver)
until  the strayed-out parameter  has 
been  brought back  to 
its  optimum  level. Manual controlling process is done by
zigbee wireless network whenever necessary. Whose receiver side of zigbee is
connected to PC in control room .VISUAL BASIC software is used here, which
helps us to transmit the data back through zigbee wireless network to
controller to perform, needed control action. Automatic controlling process
takes place in the greenhouse environment itself as per designing
microcontroller based circuit to monitor and control various parameters.  

Fig 6 Architecture of
Greenhouse Management Using Embedded System and Zigbee Technology

2.6.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
This has both automatic and manual
control of the system.

·        
When any of input module ie., sensors
does not work properly required actions is not get performed. At that time ,
zigbee wireless sensor network based controlling process can be used.

2.6.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not check the soil moisture
which is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.7 MICROCONTROLLER
BASED POLYHOUSE CONTROL SYSTEM

2.7.1 INTRODUCTION

The system provides an
ability to monitor Temperature, Level, Humidity and Moisture contain in soil.
The heart of system is 89CSlmicrocontroller. This is embedded microcontroller
chip which has computer processor with all it support function (clock and
reset), Memory (both program and data) and I10 (including bus interface) built
in to device. These built in function minimize the need for external circuits
and devices to be designed in the final application. The system works with
5Volt DC power supply. A Moisture sensor, specially designed to sense the
amount of water content in the soil, also called the “Gypsum sensor”
provides moisture content information in terms of change in resistance. This
change in resistance is used to provide a proportional change in analog voltage
within certain voltage limits. The signal can then be covered to digital form,
so as to be processed as per the systems requirements with the use of
microcontroller. The software burned within the microcontroller then can
control a valve. A set of valves, that in-turn controls the water supply to the
field to maintain the soil moisture condition within present limits, they also
control temperature and humidity within set limit. The block diagram consists
of the sensors and signal conditioning circuit for the Temperature, Level.
Humidity and moisture measurement. The sensors and signal conditioning block
will convert the physical quantity in to analogous voltage.

Fig 7 Block Diagram of
Micro-Controller Based Poly House Controller

2.7.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
Works satisfactory as per the
requirement

·        
Helps in optimum utilization of water
for irrigation

2.7.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse , proper control of light is important as light is
very important for photosynthesis.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

2.8 Controlling and
Environmental Monitoring Of Polyhouse Farm Through Internet

2.8.1INTRODUCTION

The parameters
temperature, Humidity, Soil moisture, 
are monitored and controlled using ARM processor ,transmitted through
the RS232 to the VB based monitor unit and then to the android mobile phone via
a Wi-Fi or internet connection.  All
sensor values that are collected from the greenhouse were displayed on the LCD
screen. Development process of hardware is a structure imposed on the
development which including Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design using DIPTRACE
software. In this system, C Compiler software is used for programming. This
program can receive data with microcontroller and stored in database. By using
C Compiler software, Temperature sensor, humidity sensor, rs232 device and also
LCD display were interfaced with the microcontroller. This program will start
from the greenhouse where the sensors will collect the environmental data in
analog form. By using KEIL software sensor data collected are in analog form
and will be converted to digital form using ADC converter in the
microcontroller. Then, the data were transmitted through RS232 to PC. The data
received was displayed on the LCD screen shows the interfacing between the LCD
display and a ARM7 microcontroller. Overall, in the polyhouse the system
monitoring temperature and humidity then transmitted through wireless WIFI and
the data are monitored on the LCD display.

2.8.2 ADVANTAGES

·        
Useful in hazardous applications

·        
Quick response time

·        
Whole system is Fully automated

·        
Robust system, require low power

2.8.3 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse , proper control of light is important as light is
very important for photosynthesis.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S.No.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

LIGHT SENSOR

HUMIDITY SENSOR

MOISTURE SENSOR

TEMPERATURE SENSOR

RAINWATER HARVESTING

1

Wireless
Solution for Polyhouse Cultivation Using Embedded System

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

2

Design and Development of Embedded
System for Measurement of Humidity, Soil Moisture and Temperature in
Polyhouse using 89E516RD Microcontroller

NO

YES

YES

YES

NO

3

AUTOMATION IN POLYHOUSE USING PLC        

YES

YES

NO

YES

NO

4

Design
of Remote Monitoring and Control System with Automatic Irrigation System
using GSM-Bluetooth

NO

YES

YES

NO

NO

5

PIC
Microcontroller Based Greenhouse Monitoring and Control System

NO

YES

YES

YES

NO

6

Greenhouse Management Using Embedded
System and Zigbee Technology

YES

YES

NO

YES

NO

7

Microcontroller
Based Polyhouse Control System

NO

YES

YES

YES

NO

8

Controlling
and Environmental Monitoring Of Polyhouse Farm Through Internet

NO

YES

YES

YES

NO

 

 

 

 

3. CONCLUSION

Various climatic
parameters have to  be monitored and
controlled to improve the crop productivity. To monitor these parameters
various sensors like temperature sensor to monitor the temperature, Humidity
sensor to monitor the air moisture content, Soil moisture sensor to monitor the
soil moisture content, light intensity sensor to monitor the amount of light
inside the polyhouse are used. The required climatic parameters information can
be acquired from the polyhouse environment using these sensors. In order to
monitor all the above said parameters require large number of sensors and
wires. These sensors obtain the data and various steps are taken to achieve the
target conditions inside the polyhouse. These conditions are achieved using
fans, foggers, coolers, heaters, etc. There are two common disadvantages  in the proposed technologies. First none of
the technologies have all the four sensors i.e. humidity sensor, temperature
sensor, light sensor and soil moisture. Second none of the systems have a
technique to utilise rain water for irrigation of the crop inside the
polyhouse. Thus  new system has to be
developed which has all the sensors and a technique to utilise rainwater for
irrigating the crop inside the polyhouse.

 

 

 

 

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