covering many articles published over many years studying about the charge
transfer complex of cyclic compounds. Also, there has been a growing number of
reports discussing about the synthesis and characterization of charge transfer
complex of the cyclic compounds. Whereas many reports focused on methods that’s
used to analyze these complexes especially the acceptor and donor compounds on
This study discussing
about the cyclic compound, as what is it, and how it could interact, what is
poise on it, and the kind of cyclic compound. Also, this study shows the charge
transfer complex, which it is could explain the behavior of some kind of
molecules, that is not agreed with the popular theory of classical patterns of
ionic, covalent and coordination of hydrogen bonding components.
compound ( ring compound ) is a compound consists of series of atoms
connected to form a ring. Rings may be various in size from three to many
atoms. However, there are many kinds of the cyclic compounds such as, isocyclic
compounds, carbocyclic compounds, heterocyclic
compounds, inorganic heterocyclic compounds, organic heterocyclic compounds.
of the charge transfer complex ( CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor
complex is an combination of two or more molecules, or of varies parts of one
large molecule, in which an electronic charge transfer occurred between the
molecular entities. The stabilizing force for the molecular complex provides by
this electrostatic attraction. In CT complex, there is two types of molecules
one of them called the electron donor which is donating the electron and the
receiving species is called the electron acceptor.
compound, Charge transfer complex, Heterocyclic compound, Isocyclic compound,
Carbocyclic compound, Inorganic heterocyclic compound, Organic heterocyclic
Firstly: what is the Cyclic compounds:
Molecules are the component
that all chemical elements consisted of it. The structure of the molecules
determined the kind of the chemical elements, which is represented by the type and number
of atoms and even by covalent bonding within them. The main two types of structure are:
• The atoms form a chain – aliphatic (acyclic)
atoms form a ring – cyclic compounds.
The Cyclic compounds kinds:
An Isocyclic Compounds is consists of
one atoms element is C-atoms in the ring.
A Carbocyclic Compound is consists of
at least two different atoms in the ring.
A Heterocyclic Compound is consists of
no C-atom in the ring.
An Inorganic Heterocycle is consists
of at least one atom is a C-atom in the ring.
An Organic heterocyclic Compound is
consists of atoms which are not carbon in the ring. (1)
The following picture is represented the shape of The Cyclic
We must compare the heterocyclic compounds
with their carbocyclic analogues, if we want to know the stability and
reactivity of heterocyclic compounds. It cannot have heterocycle from a
carbocyclic compound by replacing appropriate CH2 or CH groups by heteroatoms.
If one limits oneself to monocyclic systems, one can distinguish four types of
heterocycles as follows:
Saturated heterocycles (heterocycloalkanes).
Partially unsaturated systems
Systems with the greatest possible
number of noncumulative double bonds (hetero-annulenes).
Heteroaromatic systems. (2)
Secondly: Charge Transfer Complex Of Cyclic Compound.
Mulliken and Foster
create a new type, which it is could explain the behavior of some kind of
molecules, that is not agreed with the popular theory of classical
patterns of ionic, covalent, and coordination of hydrogen bonding components.
The properties of the components cannot be
deference a lot at the shape of such adducts largely, which it could be
retained with some of its characteristics, as: its solubility, the diamagnetic
and paramagnetic susceptibility.
Because of the research at electrochemical
techniques, it has been discovered other differences. Some of the complexes are
isolated as crystals of regular stoichiometry and
At increasing in temperature, the charge
transfer complexes that the association constant of the complex decreases, its
one of the characteristics of charge transfer complexes.
The effect is due to the thermal motion
disorienting the partners of the complex.
charge transfer interactions within a molecular complex consisting of an
electron donor D and an electron acceptor A involved a resonance with a
transfer of charge from D to A, its proved by Mulliken:
D + A D D + A – D D + + A –
Nowadays, The Charge transfer complexation
creates a huge development in biochemical, bioelectrochemical, energy transfer
process, biological systems, and drug-receptor binding mechanism.
For Examples, drug action, enzyme catalysis,
ion transfers through lipophilic membranes, and certain p-acceptors have
successfully been utilized in the pharmaceutical analysis of some drugs in pure
form or in pharmaceutical preparations.
Lately, many studies have been widely
developed about the rapid interactions between different kinds of drugs and
related compounds as donors like morpholine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and
sulfadoxine, with several types of s and p-electron
On the other hand, electron donor-acceptor
(EDA) interaction has a great progress for chemical reactions like addition,
substitution and condensation.
It creates a great development and progress at
different levels and different fields like in non-linear optical materials and
electrical conductivities, second-order nonlinear optical activity,
chemistry, photo catalysts, dendrimers , solar energy storage, organic
semiconductors, as well as in studying redox processes.
Organic species have their special type of
interaction because of this Charge transfer complexes studying intensively,
which is accompanied by the transfer of an electron from the donor to the
In addition, protonation of
the donor from acidic acceptors is generally a route for the formation of ion
pair adducts. (3)
reports that’s discussing CT complexes studying many examples of molecules as
acceptors and donors, and using difference techniques to analyze CT complexes.
As shown in
in three different solvents (CCl4, CHCl3 and CH2Cl2) at six different
and 4-Picolines with (DDQ) 2, 3-dichloro-5,6- dicyanoparabenzoquinone
(ADMP), 3-amino-pyrazole (AP), 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole (DMP),
(AMP), 2-amino-4-methyl-thiazole (AMT), 2-amino-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole
and 3-amino-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine (ADMT) with chloranilic acid (CHA)
(AMT), (AMTD) and (ADMT)
characterization and thermal structural
1-Methylpiperazine (1MPIPZ) and
2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone and ?-acceptor iodine(I2)
and ?-acceptor iodine(I2)
Synthesis and electrochemical studies
thiazolidine-2,4-dione (TZD) with sigma acceptor (iodine) and pi
acceptors (chloranil, dichlorodicyanoquinone, picric acid and duraquinone)
sigma acceptor (iodine) and pi acceptors (chloranil,
dichlorodicyanoquinone, picric acid and duraquinone)
visible and 1H NMR spectroscopy
and substituted benzaldehydes, with some aromatic polynitro compounds
aromatic polynitro compounds
model 106 digital
(LCTZ) with chloranilic acid (CAA)
tetrathiafulvalene (1) with 1,2,5-chalcogenadiazole derivatives with 1,2,5thiadiazolo3,4-c1,2,5thiadiazole (2)
and 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-telluradiazole (3)
and 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-telluradiazole (3)
Spectroscopic and thermal investigations
risperidone (Ris) and ?-acceptors picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon
(DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE),
tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL)
(PA), (DDQ), (TCNQ), (TCNE), (BL) and (CL)
ciprofloxacin (CPFX), levofloxacin (LEV),
gatifloxacin (GAT) and moxifloxacin (MOX) , with chloranilic acid.
and n-donors with ?-
and Iodine monochloride
2-Methylpyridine and 2-Chloropyridine
group namely IND and CAR and iodine
We concluded from the
above that, Molecules is the component that all chemical elements consisted of
The structure of the molecules determined the
kind of the chemical elements, which is represented by the type and number of
atoms and even by covalent bonding within them.
The Cyclic compounds
have many kinds, each one differs from the other and has its characteristics
that differentiate it.
The charge transfer
complexes are influenced with increasing at temperature, Subsequently the
association constant of the complex decreases.
A lot of studies concerned with the
interactions between different kinds of drugs and the chemical compounds for
their importance to the humanity
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Chemistry of Heterocycles: Structure, Reactions, Synthesis, and Applications,
Third Edition. Edited by Theophil Eicher, Siegfried Hauptmann, and Andreas
Speicher. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2012 by
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
(2) Von Rague Schleyer, P. and Jiao, H. (2001) Chem. Rev.,
Transfer Complexes as a Semiconductor Models: Outline of Spectroscopic Studies
on Electron-Donor-Acceptor Complexes of Hexane-1,6-diol with Different p-Acceptors, Moamen S., M. Y. El-Sayed, Abdel Majid Adam,
Hosam Saad and Hala H. Eldaroti,
J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 4234 – 4259.