Site Loader

 

Abstract

This review
covering many articles published over many years studying about the charge
transfer complex of cyclic compounds. Also, there has been a growing number of
reports discussing about the synthesis and characterization of charge transfer
complex of the cyclic compounds. Whereas many reports focused on methods that’s
used to analyze these complexes especially the acceptor and donor compounds on
these complexes.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Introduction

This study discussing
about the cyclic compound, as what is it, and how it could interact, what is
poise on it, and the kind of cyclic compound. Also, this study shows the charge
transfer complex, which it is could explain the behavior of some kind of
molecules, that is not agreed with the popular theory of classical patterns of
ionic, covalent and coordination of hydrogen bonding components.

The cyclic
compound ( ring compound ) is a compound consists of series of atoms
connected to form a ring. Rings may be various in size from three to many
atoms. However, there are many kinds of the cyclic compounds such as, isocyclic
 compounds, carbocyclic compounds, heterocyclic
compounds, inorganic heterocyclic compounds, organic heterocyclic compounds.

The definition
of the charge transfer complex ( CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor
complex is an combination of two or more molecules, or of varies parts of one
large molecule, in which an electronic charge transfer occurred between the
molecular entities. The stabilizing force for the molecular complex provides by
this electrostatic attraction. In CT complex, there is two types of molecules
one of them called the electron donor which is donating the electron and the
receiving species is called the electron acceptor.

Keywords

Cyclic
compound, Charge transfer complex, Heterocyclic compound, Isocyclic compound,
Carbocyclic compound, Inorganic heterocyclic compound, Organic heterocyclic
compound.

 

                                                       

 

 

Body:

Firstly: what is the Cyclic compounds:

Molecules are the component
that all chemical elements consisted of it. The structure of the molecules
determined the kind of the chemical elements, which is represented by the type and number
of atoms and even by covalent bonding within them. The main two types of structure are:

• The atoms form a chain – aliphatic (acyclic)
compounds.

 • The
atoms form a ring – cyclic compounds.

The Cyclic compounds kinds:

1-     
An Isocyclic Compounds is consists of
one atoms element is C-atoms in the ring.

2-     
A Carbocyclic Compound is consists of
at least two different atoms in the ring.

3-     
A Heterocyclic Compound is consists of
no C-atom in the ring.

4-     
An Inorganic Heterocycle is consists
of at least one atom is a C-atom in the ring.

5-     
An Organic heterocyclic Compound is
consists of atoms which are not carbon in the ring. (1)

The following picture is represented the shape of The Cyclic
compounds;

We must compare the heterocyclic compounds
with their carbocyclic analogues, if we want to know the stability and
reactivity of heterocyclic compounds. It cannot have heterocycle from a
carbocyclic compound by replacing appropriate CH2 or CH groups by heteroatoms.
If one limits oneself to monocyclic systems, one can distinguish four types of
heterocycles as follows:

1-     
 Saturated heterocycles (heterocycloalkanes).

2-     
Partially unsaturated systems
(heterocycloalkane).

3-     
Systems with the greatest possible
number of noncumulative double bonds (hetero-annulenes).

4-     
Heteroaromatic systems. (2)

 

 

Secondly: Charge Transfer Complex Of Cyclic Compound.

 

Mulliken and Foster
create a new type, which it is could explain the behavior of some kind of
molecules, that is not agreed with the popular theory of classical
patterns of ionic, covalent, and coordination of hydrogen bonding components.

The properties of the components cannot be
deference a lot at the shape of such adducts largely, which it could be
retained with some of its characteristics, as: its solubility, the diamagnetic
and paramagnetic susceptibility.

 

Because of the research at electrochemical
techniques, it has been discovered other differences. Some of the complexes are
isolated as crystals of regular stoichiometry and
structure.

At increasing in temperature, the charge
transfer complexes that the association constant of the complex decreases, its
one of the characteristics of charge transfer complexes.

The effect is due to the thermal motion
disorienting the partners of the complex.

 The
charge transfer interactions within a molecular complex consisting of an
electron donor D and an electron acceptor A involved a resonance with a
transfer of charge from D to A, its proved by Mulliken:

 

D + A D D + A – D D + + A –

 

Nowadays, The Charge transfer complexation
creates a huge development in biochemical, bioelectrochemical, energy transfer
process, biological systems, and drug-receptor binding mechanism.

For Examples, drug action, enzyme catalysis,
ion transfers through lipophilic membranes, and certain p-acceptors have
successfully been utilized in the pharmaceutical analysis of some drugs in pure
form or in pharmaceutical preparations.

Lately, many studies have been widely
developed about the rapid interactions between different kinds of drugs and
related compounds as donors like morpholine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and
sulfadoxine, with several types of s and p-electron
acceptors.

On the other hand, electron donor-acceptor
(EDA) interaction has a great progress for chemical reactions like addition,
substitution and condensation.

It creates a great development and progress at
different levels and different fields like in non-linear optical materials and
electrical conductivities, second-order nonlinear optical activity,
microemulsion surface
chemistry, photo catalysts, dendrimers , solar energy storage, organic
semiconductors, as well as in studying redox processes.

Organic species have their special type of
interaction because of this Charge transfer complexes studying intensively,
which is accompanied by the transfer of an electron from the donor to the
acceptor.

 In addition, protonation of
the donor from acidic acceptors is generally a route for the formation of ion
pair adducts. (3)

All the
reports that’s discussing CT complexes studying many examples of molecules as
acceptors and donors, and using difference techniques to analyze CT complexes.

As shown in
Tab.1

Year

Method

Complexes

Donor

Acceptor

Type

Reference

2008

spectrophotometrically
in three different solvents (CCl4, CHCl3 and CH2Cl2) at six different
temperatures

2-, 3-
and 4-Picolines with (DDQ) 2, 3-dichloro-5,6- dicyanoparabenzoquinone
(DDQ–Picolines)
And (iodine–Picoline)
 

Picoline

DDQ
 
 
 
 
Iodine

??
– ?
 
 
 
 
n-?
 

4

2009

Spectrophotometry

2-amino-4-methoxy-6-methyl-pyrimidine
(AMMP),
2-amino-4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidine
(ADMP), 3-amino-pyrazole (AP), 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole (DMP),
3-amino-5-methyl-pyrazole
(AMP), 2-amino-4-methyl-thiazole (AMT), 2-amino-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole
(AMTD)
and 3-amino-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine (ADMT) with chloranilic acid (CHA)

(AMMP), (ADMP),
(AP), (DMP),
(AMP),
(AMT), (AMTD) and (ADMT)

(CHA)

??-
?

5

2010

Spectroscopic
characterization and thermal structural 
analysis

1-Methylpiperazine (1MPIPZ) and
?-acceptors 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane(TCNQ),tetracyanoethylene(TCNE),
2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone(DDQ),
2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone and ?-acceptor iodine(I2)

1MPIPZ

?-acceptors
TCNQ
TCNE
DDQ
2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone
and ?-acceptor iodine(I2)

 

6

2010

Spectroscopic
characterization

Tri-iodide(CT
complex)
Morphine
and Iodine(I2)

Morphine

I2

 

7

2010

Synthesis and electrochemical studies
 

thiazolidine-2,4-dione (TZD) with sigma acceptor (iodine) and pi
acceptors (chloranil, dichlorodicyanoquinone, picric acid and duraquinone)

(TZD)

sigma acceptor (iodine) and pi acceptors (chloranil,
dichlorodicyanoquinone, picric acid and duraquinone)

 

8               
 

2011

IR and
NMR spectra

N,N?-methylenebisacrylamide

N,N-dimethylaniline

benzenesulphonyl chloride

 

9               
 

2011

IR, UV,
visible and 1H NMR spectroscopy

2-aminopyrimidine
and substituted benzaldehydes, with some aromatic polynitro compounds

2-Aminopyrimid
ine
substituted benzaldehydes

aromatic polynitro compounds

?n -?
??- ?

10               
 

2012

Systronics
model 106 digital
Spectrophotometer
 

levocetirizine
(LCTZ) with chloranilic acid (CAA)
and
2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanoquinone (DDQ)
 

LCTZ

(CAA)
 
(DDQ)

?n –?

11               
 

2012

UV-Visible
spectroscopy

tetrathiafulvalene (1) with 1,2,5-chalcogenadiazole derivatives with 1,2,5thiadiazolo3,4-c1,2,5thiadiazole (2)
and 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-telluradiazole (3)

Tetrathiafulvalene

1,2,5thiadiazolo3,4-c1,2,5thiadiazole (2)
and 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-telluradiazole (3)

 

12               
 

2013

Spectroscopic and thermal investigations
 

risperidone (Ris) and ?-acceptors picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon
(DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE),
tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL)

Ris

(PA), (DDQ), (TCNQ), (TCNE), (BL) and (CL)

 

 

2013

Spectroscopic
analysis

Naphthyridine-BF2
and Di-2-picolylamine(DPA)

Naphthyridine-BF2

DPA

 

13               
 

2013

spectrofluorimetric method
 

ciprofloxacin (CPFX), levofloxacin (LEV),
gatifloxacin (GAT) and moxifloxacin (MOX) , with chloranilic acid.

(CPFX),
 (LEV),
 (GAT),
 (MOX)

Chloranilic
acid
 

?
n-?

14               
 

2016

UV-vis spectroscopy
 

5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolewith
chloranilic acid
 
 
 
 

5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole
 
 
 
 

chloranilic acid
 

?-
and n-donors with ?-
and ?-acceptors

15

 

2016

UV-vis spectroscopy
 

2-Chloropyridine
and Iodine monochloride
 

2-Chloropyridine
 

Iodine monochloride

?n-?
 

16
 

2017

UV-vis spectroscopy
 

2-Methylpyridine-I2
and 2-Chloropyridine-I2
 
 

2-Methylpyridine and 2-Chloropyridine
 

Iodine
 

 
?n-?

17

 

2017

Ultrasonic UV-visible
spectral study
 

basic pyrrole
group namely IND and CAR and iodine

basic
pyrrole group
 

Iodine
 

?n-?
 

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion:

We concluded from the
above that, Molecules is the component that all chemical elements consisted of
it.

 The structure of the molecules determined the
kind of the chemical elements, which is represented by the type and number of
atoms and even by covalent bonding within them.

The Cyclic compounds
have many kinds, each one differs from the other and has its characteristics
that differentiate it.

The charge transfer
complexes are influenced with increasing at temperature, Subsequently the
association constant of the complex decreases.

A lot of studies concerned with the
interactions between different kinds of drugs and the chemical compounds for
their importance to the humanity

 

Reference:

·        
1
The Chemistry of Heterocycles: Structure, Reactions, Synthesis, and
Applications, Third Edition. Edited by Theophil Eicher, Siegfried Hauptmann,
and Andreas Speicher. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published
2012 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

·        
2 Von Rague
Schleyer, P. and Jiao, H. (2001) Chem. Rev., 101, 1115.

·        
3 Charge Transfer
Complexes as a Semiconductor Models: Outline of Spectroscopic Studies on
Electron-Donor-Acceptor Complexes of Hexane-1,6-diol with Different p-Acceptors, 
Moamen S., M. Y. El-Sayed, Abdel Majid Adam, Hosam Saad and Hala H.
Eldaroti, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 4234 –
4259.

·        
4
H. Razzaq et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A 70 (2008) 1034–1040 

·        
5 Journal of
Molecular Structure 928 (2009) 158–170    

·        
6 Journal of
Molecular Structure 973 (2010) 9–17 

·        
7      

·        
9
International Journal of Chemistry Vol. 3, No. 3; August 2011

·        
10
Y.M. Issa et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A 79 (2011) 513–521 

·        
11 Bull. Chem. Soc.
Ethiop. 2012, 26(3), 319-328.      

·        
14
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2013, 4, 521-530

·        
15
N. Singh et al. / Journal of Molecular Liquids 221 (2016) 1111–1120

·        
16
Gogoi, P. et al., UV-Visible spectroscopy and density functional study of
solvent effect on halogen bonded charge-transfer Complex of 2-Chloropyridine
and iodine monochloride. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2016).

·        
17
P. Gogoi et al. / Journal of Molecular Structure 1131 (2017) 114e123

·        
18
V. Ulagendran et al. / 214 Journal of Molecular Structure 1141 (2017) 213e219

Application.wiley-vch.de.
Retrieved 5 December 2017, from https://application.wiley-vch.de/books/sample/3527328688_c01.pdf
Cysewski,
P., & Szefler, B. (2010). Environment influences on the aromatic
character of nucleobases and amino
acids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2949574/.
Retrieved 5 December 2017, from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2949574/
 Eicher,
T., Hauptmann, S., & Speicher, A. (2012). Wiley: The Chemistry of
Heterocycles: Structures, Reactions, Synthesis, and Applications, 3rd,
Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition – Theophil Eicher, Siegfried
Hauptmann, Andreas Speicher. Eu.wiley.com. Retrieved 5 December 2017,
from http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-3527327479.html
International
Journal of Electrochemical Science. (2017). Electrochemsci.org.
Retrieved 5 December 2017, from http://www.electrochemsci.org/
Refat, M.
(2013). Charge Transfer Complexes as a Semiconductor Models: Outline
of Spectroscopic Studies on Electron Donor-Acceptor Complexes of
Hexane-1,6-diol with Different p-Acceptors (pp. 4234 – 4259). International Journal of ELECTROCHEMICAL
SCIENCE. Retrieved from http://www.electrochemsci.org/papers/vol8/80304234.pdf

·        
Schleyer, P.
(2001). Introduction:  Aromaticity.
http://pubs.acs.org. Retrieved 5 December 2017, from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cr0103221

 

 

 

(1)The
Chemistry of Heterocycles: Structure, Reactions, Synthesis, and Applications,
Third Edition. Edited by Theophil Eicher, Siegfried Hauptmann, and Andreas
Speicher. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2012 by
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

 

(2) Von Rague Schleyer, P. and Jiao, H. (2001) Chem. Rev.,
101, 1115.

 

(3) Charge
Transfer Complexes as a Semiconductor Models: Outline of Spectroscopic Studies
on Electron-Donor-Acceptor Complexes of Hexane-1,6-diol with Different p-Acceptors,  Moamen S., M. Y. El-Sayed, Abdel Majid Adam,
Hosam Saad and Hala H. Eldaroti,
Int.
J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 4234 – 4259.

 

 

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Erica!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out