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 ABSTRACT: Here, Back-off method
is used for congestion control in IoT. The easy control mechanism of back-off method
makes it more helpful to be implemented in applications based on IoT for
congestion control. The exponential and Fibonacci back-off method is used for nodes
of IoT for congestion control. The back-off method, according to their data
traffic type and load are changed by IoT nodes. Nodes transmit data using Fibonacci
and convert to Exponential Back-off as their reduced loads, whereas IoT node
which has lower constant load of traffic uses Exponential Back-off. The period
of waiting and window size of contention increment for both (Fibonacci and
exponential) back-off method is analysed. Both (Fibonacci and exponential) back-off
methods’ performance is measured. The retransmission period should be adaptive for
performance increment.



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data of IoT collected by the Internet of Things (IoT) must be sent to servers
in order to provide various services for processing. Including network
bandwidth, node processing abilities, and server capacities, congestion control
in IoT plays is important for meeting service performance requirements, due to
the limited amount of resources in IoT. Conventional protocols of internet may
not be directly applicable to the inhibited environment that IoT devices are
expected to work in accordance with, specially given the source conditions of
the devices. In order to address this, taking into communication patterns of
account and source availability, several new protocols have been launched. The demands
to support IoT communications are extensively different from the design chart
for current macro cellular networks optimized for communications. Therefore,
the requirements for IoT communications may be best backed by a new
architecture and lightweight protocol structure rather than a progression of
the recent cellular architecture and protocols. Binary exponential back-off
(BEB)refers to a method used to arrange developed retransmissions of the same
block of data, often as part of congestion evasion of network. The
retransmission of frames in carrier sense multiple access with collision
avoidance (CSMA/CA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) networks are the examples, where this method is part of the channel
access method used to transmit data on these networks. In networks of ethernet,
the method is commonly used to schedule retransmissions after dilapidition.



given paper depicts the design and increase of an end-to-end Internet Protocol
based architecture incorporating a Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) over
6LowPAN Contiki based WSN with an HTTP over Internet Protocol based utilization.
Representational State Transfer (REST) architectures allow IoT and
Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications to be progressed on top of web services
which can be shared and restated.

M. Swarna, S. Ravi and M. Anand illustrated how the introduction of User Datagram
Protocol and the packet compression drastically lessen the mote’s power
consumption and increase the battery lifetime Here, in this paper, the key
technologies associated in the application of IoT & the major application
domain where the Internet of Things will play a key role are described. Radio
Frequency Identification, NFC, M-to-M communication technologies that can be applied
to implement the concept of Internet of Things is discussed here. Addressing
and networking issues of Internet of Things is discussed here.

paper comes up with an air interface (simplified) protocol for Internet of Things
and a concurrent channel for uplink (UL) IoT conversation. To support the IoT
system concept, it has come up with that a separate light-weight air interface
protocol for IoT. Conduct outcome for the proposed simultaneous channel of
access used for the upper link IoT communications are given. (Chandra S. Bontu
et al., 2014) 3

An IoT messaging set of rules that is attaining
in acclaim and relevance is the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Here,
in this paper, CoAP was traditionally given with a fundamental congestion
control mechanism, to direct its various constraints, a new congestion control
protocol named CoAP Congestion Control Advanced (CoCoA) is being advanced.
(Rahul Bhalerao et al., 2014). 4

Here, in this
paper, congestion control set of rules for wireless sensor networks are inspected
in terms of their viability to disclose congestion and apprise the concerned
nodes so that a convenient control will be taken. Here, in this paper,
depending on the usage types, how different mechanisms are used to handle the
congestion is considered.

 (Mohamed Amine Kafi et al., 2014). 5


The given paper presents first appraisal
results for a mechanism that advances the conversation between cloud services
and resource-constrained IoT devices. If advanced congestion control
mechanisms’ use boosts the quality of service in terms of higher output and swifter
processing of requests by the network is calculated. Here, in this paper, the
amount of applications that can be handled in parallel boosts and the time it
takes for applicants to complete their duties decreases is attained. The improved
congestion control mechanisms performs successfully this by calculating altered
retransmission time out timers and adapting the back-off behaviour dynamically
(August Betzler et al., 2014). 6

Here, in this paper, a node traffic prognosis
model to anticipate and to lessen the congestion is given. Here, in this paper prognosis
of packet generation due to network congestion from both occasional data
generation is discussed. Simulation using NS-2 is used to exhibit the capability
of the proposed method. Here, in this paper, Congestion zones should be
determined according to the analysed potency. Here, in this paper, the difference
in network utility interpreted depending on the design of the congestion zone
(Ga-Won Lee et al., 2014). 7

Here, in this paper, a flow control escalation
issue for wireless sensor networks with link interference in an asynchronous
setting is proposed. This paper makes utilization of the intrusion set to model
the dimensional contention between links and analyse the issue as a non-linear
constrained issue. The proposed design can attain the best utility. (Jiming
Chen et al., 2010) 8

This paper
proposes a solution against insider threats through a shared capability based
access control in Internet of Things. The capability-based access offers aides
in terms of shared management, traceability of the access, verification leads
to expand scalability and support of certificates based on Elliptic Curve
Cryptography. This has offered the possibility to accomplishment the Internet of
Things potential in terms of end-to-end (E2E)relatedness based on IPv6, access
to the resources through Constrained Application Protocol methods and to
provide an authorization control solution on top for CoAP Resources

(Jose L.
Hernandez-Ramos et al., 2013). 9


The given paper
presents the Identity Authentication and Capability based Access Control
(IACAC) model performance investigation. To cover Internet of Things from
denial of service (DoS) attacks, the approach of capability for access control
is introduced. Hence, the proposed set of rules is calculated by using security
protocol verification tool and authentication results shows that IACAC is
secure against various attacks. The given paper addresses challenges in Internet
of Things and security attacks to give an actual perspective of IoT n/ws

(Parikshit N.
Mahalle et al., 2013). 10


The conduct of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is affected by the catastrophic
communication medium, application diversification, dense distribution, defined
processing power and storage capacity, constant topology change. All these
limitations give compelling and exclusive design challenges to data transport
control in WSNs. An effective transport protocol should consider decisive data/information
delivery, quality of service and control of congestion. The latter part is important
for attaining a high output and a long n/w span. A review and cytology of the
state-of-the-art set of rules from the literature up to 2013 is provided in the
given paper. Firstly, banking on the control policy, the set of rules are distributed
into resource v/s traffic control. Traffic control set of rules are either
reactive or avoiding. Reactive solutions are divided by the reaction scale,
while preventive solutions are split up into buffer limitation vs. interference
control. H. Zhai and Y.
Fang. 13

control and dependable data delivery are two chief functions of the transport
layer in wired and wireless networks. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a
special class of wireless ad-hoc networks with unique attribute and vital constraints.
Constraints concern their resources, such as energy, memory, and computational
power, as well as their applications. Due to these constraints and attributes,
the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the legacy protocol that appliances
control of congestion and reliable transmission in the Internet, cannot apply
to Wireless Sensor Networks in its conventional form. To deal with this non-existent
of a standard solution, many efforts are taking place here. Here, in this
paper, we review, allocate, and differentiate methods, set of rules, and
mechanisms that deal directly with control of congestion and avoidance in WSNs.
Index Terms—Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), congestion control, congestion
avoidance, reliable transmission.

Shashank Agrawal
and Dario Vieira 2


The Internet of Things is becoming one
of the breakthrough in the generation of communication and networking which is
going to determine IT’s future. The clarification goes on to say that “The IoT
is such a profound approach that it is a challenge to even think all the
possible paths in which it will affect business, economies, and society”. IoT is
the terminal of Internet with RFID, Sensor and smart objects. IoT means “things
belonging to the Internet” to supply and authorize all of real-world
information. The Internet of Things is a capable Internet-based network.
Although it makes measurable development, there are still uncertainties about
security concepts of its usage that is usually considered as a major concern in
the design of IoT architectures. However, the IoT displays characteristics that
pose ample risks: acquire acceptance, heterogeneity, and terminal susceptibility.
The given paper chiefly focuses on survey of analysing all insurance issues and
suggested remedy. And as IoT contains 4 layers: perception, network, support
and application. This paper will analyse the insurance problems of each layer deeply.
The consideration defines security requirements and objections that are common
in IoT applications and discloses insurance threats and related remedies to
make this technology secure and more extensive accordingly and recommended farther
areas of research needed.

Chandra S. Bontu, Shalini Periyalwar,
and Mark Pecen


The given article comes up with an Internet
of Things WAN communication system approach expand within the operator’s accredited
macro cellular band, applicable for low-energy, low-complexity IoT schedules
with low-priority and occasional IoT traffic. This given article also comes up
with an easy air interface set of rules for IoT and a concurrent access channel
for uplink (UL) IoT communication. The suggested system concept can be
considered either as an improvement or as a superimpose to the existing
cellular systems

B. Braden, D.
Clark, J. Crowcroft, B. Davie, S. Deering, D. Estrin, S. Floyd, V. Jacobson, G.
Minshall, C. Patridge, L.

Peterson, K.
Ramakrishnan, S. Shenker, J. WrocLawski, and Lixia Zhang. 20


This paper shows up 2 endorsements to the Internet
community concerning parts to boost and conserve Internet performance. It
presents a strong proposal for examining, standardization, and widespread distribution
of active queue administration in routers, to boost the achievement of today’s
Internet. It also compulses an effort of research, measurement, and ultimate formation
of router mechanisms to protect the Internet from flows that are not completely
responsive to notification of congestion. This paper provides info for the
Internet communication. It does not give a standard of Internet of any type.

N. Mahalle, BayuAnggorojati, Neeli R. Prasad and Ramjee Prasad 10



In the recent years the Internet of Things (IoT) has seen
boundless utilization & can be found everywhere. Verification and access
control are chief and demanding functionalities in the context of IoT to enable
secure conversation between devices. Flexibility, dynamic network topology and lose
physical insurance of low power devices in IoT networks are achievable sources
for security susceptibilities. This paper gives out the Identity Authentication
and Capability based Access Control (IACAC) model with set of rules evaluation
and performance calculations. The freshness of this model is that, it presents
a unified access of authentication and access control for IoT devices. The outcomes
of other related study have also been analysed to ratify and support our
findings. Hence, the proposed set of rules is calculated by using security
protocol verification tool and verification outcomes shows that IACAC is secure
against preceding attacks. This paper also discusses conducted analysis of the
protocol in terms of computational time differentiated to other present
solutions. Ahead, this paper addresses tests in IoT and insurance attacks are created
with the use cases to give an actual perspective
of IoT networks.


The wireless personal
area network (WPAN) is a recently appeared wireless technology for upcoming
short range indoor & outdoor communication usages. The IEEE 802.15.3 medium
access control (MAC) is suggested, especially, for short range high data rates usages,
to correlate the approach to the wireless medium among the challenging devices.
Here, the abstract in paper uses detailed model to research the performance
analysis of WPAN (IEEE 802.15.3) MAC in terms of throughput, efficient
bandwidth utilization & delay with various acknowledgement schemes under
different parameters. Also, some important observations are obtained, which can
be very useful to the protocol architectures. Finally, we come up with some decisive
research problems to further investigate the achievable adavancement in the
WPAN MAC. This paper was suggested by K.W.
Chin and D. Lowe for  “Simulation study
of the IEEE 802.15.3 MAC,” 17


In the document by M. Allman, V. Paxson, and W. Stevens.
TCP Congestion Control, in
April 1999, 19 defines TCP’s four associated control
of congestion algorithms: slow start, congestion avoidance, fast retransmit,
and fast recovery.  In addition to this,
the document specifically gives how Transmission Control Protocol should begin
transmission after a approximately long idle time, as well as considering different
acknowledgment generation methods.

IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks
(6LoWPAN) has increased the integration of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and
smart objects with the Internet. At the same time, the Constrained Application
Protocol (CoAP) has made it available & possible to administer resource
strained devices with Restful web service functionalities and therefore to accommodate
WSNs and smart objects with the Web. The use of Web services on top of IP based
WSNs facilitates the software reusability and reduces the complexity of the
application development. This work emphasises restful WSNs. It states &
describes CoAP, features the main changes with HTTP and addresses the outcomes
of an experiment displaying the aids of CoAP in terms of power utilization
compared to HTTP. The paper also describes the design and development of an
end-to-end IP based architecture combining a CoAP over 6LowPAN Contiki based
WSN with an HTTP over IP based usage. This allows a consumer/user to allow to
enter WSN data precisely from a browser. The chief system’s functionalities are
given & researched.

Walter Colitti, Kris
Steenhaut and Niccolò De Caro “Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks with the Web”





Connect IoT Node1 Transmission (Transmission) from Rs232 to Rx1 of Arduino
& Receiving node (Rx) from Rs232 to Transmission (Transmission 1) of


Connect IoT Node 2 Transmission from Rs232 to Rx2 of Arduino & Rx from
Rs232 to Transmission2 of Arduino.


Provide Power supply (5V) and Gnd to the MAX232 boards from Arduino board.


Figure 3.1: Basic block diagram




we have done research and judgements about out project. Title finalization and
evaluation phase was covered up. The concept and idea behind the congestion
control in IoT was studied and understood. In IoT, congestion is occurred due
to simultaneous messages from several nodes congestion occurs in IoT in 2
principal situations.

Large number of IoT
devices transmit data at the same time.

IoT nodes roaming onto
a other network, then network node is increased.

idea behind using NS2 simulator over other software such as MATLAB was
finalised. NS2, i.e., Network Simulator Version – 2. It’s an open source system
driven simulator devised particularly for research in computer communication
networks. Research was done on various reference papers to understand the
implementation and methodology of various network protocols and their uses to
avoid congestion control. At last back off method was finalised for congestion
control in IoT


               V.   CONCLUSION

design of IoT nodes and development of IoT nodes with control of congestion mechanism
is characterized. Calculations and simulation outputs show that the proposed
control achieves comparable lag & delay performance and better throughput
performance. Adaptive back-off mechanism is carried out in between IoT nodes. Simulated
outcomes show how back-off ways adapt with different loads. The hardware
implementation of adaptive back-off algorithm method is achieved. Various Back-off
timers for Internet of Things control of congestion are reviewed. In planned
method, delay of packet is varied according to the load of IoT nodes. The
throughput also increases.

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