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After the Civil War in May 9, 1865 the thirteenth amendment was passed in order to abolish slavery ( After the Civil War the former slaves were given citizenship in the United States, however Southern states still limited their rights. Slavery, in the Southern states, was still around after the thirteenth amendment was passed. In 1865, slavery ended, which meant new found freedom for African Americans. For Africans Americans, this had changed their whole style of living. Gone were the mistreatment and the indignities of a slave life. But years after they were given their citizenship, they were still not given full rights. Years go by after the thirteenth amendment was given, and by this the Africans Americans had a new lifestyle. As any other African Americans dream was to live free, they could finally live like an American citizen without working for someone else. Years later, although slavery was over, the brutality of white race still kept happening. After slavery, the South instituted laws such as the black codes and the KKK, limiting them to various different rights. Since the South didn’t agree with the rights that the African Americans were given, the government decide to pass a law so that African Americans could be free at last. So in March of 1865 the Freedmen’s Bureau was established to help freed African American people to achieve economic stability and secure political freedoms. Since the mistreatment of slaves was terrible Congress passed the 14 and 15 Amendments. The 14th Amendment defined a citizen as any person born in or naturalized in the United States (Kuhn-Danner, Cyndi) . The 15th amendment prohibited governments from denying U.S. citizens the right to vote based on race, color, or past servitude. The main goal of the Amendments was to give African Americans the right to vote and be a citizen. After the Civil War, the South reacted to the 13th,14th, and 15th amendment by restricting African American’s privileges such as voting rights.           The 13th Amendment was passed to officially abolish slavery in America, and it was ratified on December 6, 1865, right after when the Civil War ended. The 13th amendment says, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction” ( African Americans were taught that their life would be different after the 13th Amendment was passed. However, years later when African Americans were free there was still white American men who disagreed that free slaves should become citizens. The South mainly disagreed on African Americans having rights, so they instituted the law of black codes, which prohibited them from exercising all their rights as a full citizen. Even though the black code allowed African Americans to some right, it still wasn’t fair because they were not considered as full citizens. These codes also made it illegal for blacks to serve in juries, testify against whites, or serve in state militias. These laws also required African Americans to sharecrop, and farmers to sign labor contracts with white landowners. Without having any education the African Americans had no choice but to agree and work. Since the African Americans had no money to start their own businesses, they did sharecropping. Instead of receiving wages for working an owner’s land and having to work for someone with harsh discipline, most freedmen preferred to rent land for a fixed payment rather than receive wages. By the early 1870s, the system known as sharecropping had come to dominate agriculture across the South. This system allowed black families to rent small plots of land, or shares, to work themselves and  in return, they would give a portion of their crop to the landowner at the end of the year ( At this time the slaves were not educated, so they had no choice but to work as a farmer. The act of black codes was basically having the Africans Americans rights taken away. The Southerners know that without any education the Africans Americans can’t get a job. This was made purposely to make the free slaves still work for them. Most free African Americans that lived in the South were desperate, and in deep poverty because they had no job so they were forced to stay and work to survive. The Ku Klux Klan known as the KKK was a white Southerner group that was against African Americans having citizenship. The KKK emerged during Reconstruction when they passed the 13th amendment ( This group of terrorists would terrorize and assault African Americans to stop their voting rights and citizenship. The KKK would limit their rights by using violence against them and threatening them. For an example, the KKK performed horrible crimes against African Americans, especially those running for office in the South. Africans American couldn’t be a citizen of the United States without having to be threatened. They would usually kill them. This clan scared the African Americans so immensely to not vote or to do anything so they had to be in their house in a sort of time or else they would have gotten beaten. Another example of this mistreatment was when they weren’t allowed to vote. If the African Americans voted it wouldn’t count. The Democrats relied on the Klan to secure election victories. By this they would not count African American votes. The KKK oftentimes threatened or killed those who competed as Republican candidates. Many Southern Republicans abandoned their campaigns due to living in constant fear. By this Africans Americans had no impact on voting or choosing what they wanted like a true citizen would have access too.       In 1868 after the 13th amendment was passed, the 14th amendment was passed to the Constitution of the United States and it granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans. Also it gave slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War, including all persons born in the United States ( The amendment then reaffirmed the privileges and rights of all citizens, and granted all these citizens the equal protection of the laws. Since the inequality for the Africans Americans has been unequal, in July 9, 1868, the 14th Amendment was passed to the Constitution and it was ratified. All Africans Americans wanted to find a way to be free. Even though the constitution passed the 14th amendment, the South still found a way to limit their rights. The government recognized that African Americans had been mistreated badly so this time if any men would break these constitutional laws they would have been put in jail. Since Southerners couldn’t do anything to the African Americans they instead discriminated them. When the 14th amendment was passed, the African Americans thought that inequality would end, but the Southerners still found a way to be superior to the African Americans. The white Americans would discriminate Africans Americans. For example, they wouldn’t even allow them to talk to them or even look at them. They would categorize them as lower class, treating them like animals. The Africans Americans would have been dealing with this discrimination for many years. Segregation would happen in all public facilities, including railroad cars, restaurants, hospitals, and schools. By this time segregation wasn’t recognized that much in the North. Mostly all African Americans would want to go to the North to have a normal life with their families, but the Southerners wouldn’t allow them. African Americans wanted a dream to only be free and have equal rights. By their dream coming true they would have to go to the Northern states which had less problems of discrimination. In March of 1865, the Freedmen’s Bureau was established (Khan Academy). This system was to help freed people, mostly African Americans, who wanted to move to the North. All African American’s dream was to achieve economic stability and secure political freedoms. Recognizing the widespread devastation in the South and the inequality that is happening, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees. Lincoln approved of the Bureau, giving it for one year. Oliver O. Howard was one the men who helped the Bureau to help freedmen and poor whites in the South, and it helped them to be free in the South. The Bureau also did this for African Americans, free people, and poor whites so they could receive both elementary and higher education. They established this system because in the South they were prohibiting their rights to vote and having them work for them. The Africans Americans knew that they didn’t have a chance to be satisfied in the South so they decided to influence the Freedmen’s Bureau. This was successful for a year but then it was shut down.    The 15th amendment of United States Constitution prohibited the federal and State governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s race (Khan Academy). The 15th amendment was passed in February 26, 1869. The 15th amendment basically allowed the African American men the right to vote. This law was basically for the Southern States because of how the mistreatment and the inequality of rights was happening. Even though this law was passed the Southerners always had a way to mistreat the African’s rights and take advantage of them. The 15th amendment was supposed to finish the mistreatment of rights in the South. The Southerners came up with poll taxes. These poll taxes were made so that the African Americans were not allowed to vote. In 1889-1910, the Poll Tax was connected with voting rights. The poll tax stated that you had to pay in order to vote. Many African Americans as well as poor whites couldn’t afford this because the tax was too high, disallowing them the ability to vote. They invented the poll tax because only the white, rich wealthy men could pay off the tax that was required to vote. The Southerners used this to stop the African Americans from voting. This allowed African Americans to not have a voice on voting which limited them to their rights as being a citizen of the United States. This would have affected the African Americans dramatically because they were still considered to be a slave. These poll taxes were successful because the former Africans American slaves wouldn’t have had enough money to be able to afford to vote. The Southerners also came up with a Literacy test to stop the African Americans from voting. Since they knew that some African Americans could pay off the poll tax, they came up with a literacy test to limit more people from voting (Khan Academy). Most of the white Southerners couldn’t even pass this test. In the 1890s to the 1960s, state governments in the South, administered literacy tests to trick people like African Americans who haven’t been educated. This allowed the Southerners to have less votes for the African Americans because they knew that they wouldn’t pass. Since the African Americans worked their whole life in farms they haven’t had an opportunity to study or have an education. The Southerners knew this, so they made the literacy test to trick them. Most of the African Americans would have fail this. Only high educated men would have passed this and would be allowed to vote. Even though congress passed the 15th amendment, the Southerners will always have a way to go over the law and prohibit the African Americans from using their rights.       After the Civil War, congress was able to pass 3 laws. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were supposed to give African Americans their rights to be a citizen of the United States. However, Southerners would always have a way to prohibit their citizenship. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, but laws like black codes, restrictions to voting, poll taxes, literacy test, discrimination, and the KKK were all causes of preventing that from happening. It might seem from the outside that the amendments was a solution for the abolishment for slavery and their right to vote, but in reality there were still things that prohibited the rights for the African Americans. It also might have seemed that it would change African Americans lives to good but if you look closely in the details of History, the Southerners made it impossible for the African Americans to live in peace. 

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