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Animal Biology assignment one

Megan Clarke

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Task one (P7 &


























One of the main functions in which the skeleton does is
shape, the skeleton gives the body its shape. The shape changes during the
growth of the skeleton. The shape of the skeleton also determines the height of
you and the size of hands and feet. Another main function of the skeleton is
support, the skeleton provides the support to the body in order for the
internal organs to keep in their proper place. The strong bones within the
spine, legs and pelvis allow enable an upright posture. The body cavities are
the spaces framed by the skeleton are way hold the internal organs. Another
main feature in which the skeleton does is movement, the skeletal bones are
held together by ligaments, and the tendons in which attach to the muscles
which attach to the bones of the skeleton. The muscle and skeletal systems work
together which is named the ‘musculoskeletal system’. This enables body
movement and stability. The shape of the bones and how they fit together at the
point of the joints allows for different types of movement. The joining
positions of the bones of the hip and shoulder have a different shape and form
ball-and-socket joints that allow movement in multiple directions. Another main
function in which the skeleton does it protection, the skeleton protects the internal
organs from any damage that could happen by surrounding them with bones. Bone
is a living tissue in which is hard and strong but is also slightly flexible.
The flexibility in bones is down to a substance called collagen, both strength
and flexibility enables the body to take such impact without such huge brakes.
The last main function in which the skeleton does is blood cell production, the
larger bones in the body contain bone marrow which is a sponge like material
inside of the bone. Red and yellow marrow are the two main types of marrow, red
is responsible for the production of all the body’s red blood cells and some of
the white blood cells. These cells carry oxygen to the body tissues.


Task two (P9):

and a Kangaroo

A dolphin has a very flexible backbone, which
allows them to move their tail powerfully to swim. Their cervical vertebrae are
shortened, which means that the dolphin has a small neck. Therefore, most
dolphins are only able to move their head from side to side. The dolphin has
dorsal fins which are not made from bone they are made from tough, fatty
fibrous material. The dolphin’s fore arms have evolved to become flippers, this
makes it easier for the dolphin the be able to swim throughout water. A
dolphins’ flippers are ridged this is because the dolphins only mobile joint is
their shoulder. A dolphin also has flukes, these are also boneless much like
the dorsal fin, the fluke is located at the end of a dolphin’s spine. These
also help when it comes to the dolphin swimming as it helps with the movement
of the water and the fluke to move the dolphin around. Dolphins are said to
have ‘floating’ ribs, the few ribs in which are attached to each other are
often joined which enables the rib cage to collapse under pressure of the deep water
without being damaged at all. The skull of a dolphin has developed so the
dolphins facial structure is elongated which gives the dolphin the long face
look. The bones have elongated which makes both the upper and lower jaw both
long. The skull is also in line with the spinal column and the cervical
vertebrae are joint together. The main bones of the dolphin’s upper jaw have
trusted over the eye sockets, this is what allows the dolphin to
echolocate/call out. The skull of a dolphin has also adapted so that they can
produce and receive high frequency sounds. The upper jaw bones hold facial
muscles in which focus towards the blowhole. At the blow hole these muscles are
attached to sacs of soft tissue in the nasal passage. The ears of a dolphin
have a complex sinus on the skull base, this sinus helps isolate left and right
ears from each other. Which makes it easier for the dolphin to tell the
direction of sound. The lungs of a dolphin are supplied by a short and wide trachea.















A kangaroo has a short forelimbs with mobile
grasping forepaws in which enable the kangaroo to hold food to eat and to also
open their pouch. They also have long hind limbs with long narrow feet which
gives them the characteristic of their ‘big feet’. They also have syndatylous
hind-feet, the two limbs are fused together to form the grooming comb, they use
these to generally clean themselves. Kangaroos travel by hopping, they take off
with their hind feet, and they land on their fore limbs and tail, and then
pushing off with their hind limbs. Their strong and elongated fourth toe serves
as a lever to propel and handle the animal’s weight when it’s standing. The
kangaroo’s long legs help when they are stranding to get around. Their
forelimbs and tails help prop them when they crawl during feeding. Their
powerful hind limbs and strong tail help support the kangaroo along with its
balancing. The shin bones of the kangaroo are a very long elongated bone of the
body but this bone is not heavily muscled. Along with this bone a kangaroo’s
ankle is adapted so it cannot be rotated/moved sideways and can only move
normally. This prevents the ankle from being twisted. A kangaroo’s mouth and
teeth are adapted to take small food items.






Synovial joint

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