Anonymity or Confidentiality is
assured. Anonymity occurs when no one,
including the researcher, can link to the participants’ data they provide. If participants can be linked to data, the
researcher has the obligation to address confidentiality. Confidentiality
involve protections of the participants’ identity by the researchers. In many studies, it is not possible to
maintain anonymity. The researcher will
usually come face to face with the participants in an experimental
research. To assure anonymity or
confidentiality, participants and the site where the conclusion of the study was conduction should be
described in general terms in the description of the sample and the setting.
Offer to answer All Questions Is made. Potential
subjects must always be given the opportunity to ask any questions they may
have about the research. It is almost impossible
for the researcher to include every aspect of the study in a verbal or written explanation. Participants frequently have questions about
the study and an opportunity should be presented for these questions during the
verbal explanations of the research. The
researcher is obligated to be available (by phone/email/letter) if the
questions arise at a time of if participants have questions when reading the
written explanation of research.
The purpose of the research is to
discover new information that would be helpful for the society in future. It
should never cause harm or injured to anyone or find out information at the expense
of other people. There is dilemma arises from the researcher in this case
because to avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. Never
take for granted that the participant will understand the researcher language used.
The evidence obtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence or
not. In order to identify what can benefit the patients, it may be necessary to
exposed them to risks although the researchers are obligated to do their best
to minimize those possible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants.
Never exposed the participants’ details to public or other researcher in any
way. Participants’ personal matters must be well kept in the separate location
and data are recorded and subjects’ name are only can be access by the
researcher or members of the researcher.
Beneficence is the act that is done for
the benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the persons concerned.
This principal states that the research should do no harm and maximize benefits
for participants and minimize risks for participants. Participant must be safe
and feel protected by the researcher whenever they sign he consent and agree to
participate. Full explanations and information must be detailed to
participants. To use easy words and
simple language for details so that they will fully understand and to avoid
miss understand of the concepts.
The second requirements in the principle
of autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be protected. This is to
ensure that the persons concerned are not involved in research which could be
harmful for them with regard to a research project. This is because some people
in society may not have the capacity to make fully informed decisions.
The individuals should be treated as
autonomous which means that the individual capable of making their own decision
about important personal matters. The individual should only be involved in
research if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully informed
about the nature, purpose and consequences of the research. Therefore the
individuals’ right need to be respected and they can make their own decision
whether to participate in the research or they will refuse to be the participant.
There are three fundamental principles
of research ethics that can be used by the researchers in their work which are
respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence and justice.