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“What i LEARNED: i Suffer Alone While Suffering with Many.” Contexts,

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vol. 8, no. 2, 2009, pp. 78–79. JSTOR, JSTOR, 12 January 2018


to the National Eating Disorders Association, women between ages 15 and 24 who
suffer from an eating disorder have a death rate 12 times higher than all other
causes of death for the general female adolescent population.  Also an estimated 8 million to10 million
women along with 1 million men suffer the effects from eating disorders in the
United States alone. Many adolescents face personal issues that often intersect
with the onset of puberty. Girls begin to go through morphological and
biological changes at the same point they’re attempting to establish
independence from their parents. Secondary socialization and media becomes a
girl’s primary source of cultural information. Social deviance is seems
inevitable that for an anorexic woman. Woman with an eating disorders are
rarely able to conform to social norms around weight and normal eating habits.

A modified labeling theory, from Bruce Link and colleagues, predicts that
people suffering from a mental illness will accept the social stigma associated
with the disease and begin to with draw from society as they experience
negative reactions to their situation. Complete recovery from an eating
disorder, if ever accomplished, is estimated to take between seven and 10
years, even with several hospitalizations.



A. Padierna, et al. “The Health-Related
Quality of Life in Eating Disorders.” Quality of

Life Research, vol. 9, no. 6, 2000, pp. 667–674. JSTOR. 14 January


study investigated and provides evidence of the health-related quality of life
in patients with eating disorders in relation to the severity of eating
symptomatology and psychological comorbidity. The Eating Disorders Outpatient
Clinic One consecutively recruited hundred ninety-seven study patients. A short
form or Sf-36, a generic health-related quality of life questionnaire, the
Eating Attitudes Test, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were given
to the patients and used to calculate different aspects of their health-related
quality of life. The final outcomes of the questionnaires were compared with
the outcomes of the Spanish general population for women 18-34 years of age.

Women in the general population were less dysfunctional in all areas of the
SH-36 compared to patients with eating disorders. When Eating Attitudes test
and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale resulted in higher scores they
were associated with a greater perception of impairment on all SF-36 subscales.

Overall, the evaluation of health-related quality of life in these study
patients confirmed the influence of these disorders on daily life in areas are
not directly related to eating disorders. The SF-36 is useful for determining
different levels of severity of eating disorders as well as other psychological
comorbidities of the patients.


Klump, Kelly L., and Kristen M. Culbert.

“Molecular Genetic Studies of Eating

Disorders: Current Status
and Future Directions.” Current Directions in

Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 1, 2007, pp. 37–41. JSTOR, JSTOR, 15 January 2018


This article reviewed several association
studies that have examined the genetic basis of eating disorders. Overall,
findings suggest that estrogen genes, brain-derived neurotropic factors, and
serotonin may be important for the development of eating disorders. These
neuronal systems influence behavioral and personality characteristics, such as
anxiety and food intake, which are disrupted in eating disorders. Future
studies would gain from increased sample sizes and the addition of behavioral
and personality covariates in analyses. Consideration and involvement of the
interactions between genes, mechanisms of genetic effects, and living
environments is also needed to deepen the understanding of the genetic basis of
these disorders.


Janet, and C. Peter Herman. “Mental Health and Eating Behaviours: A Bi-

Directional Relation.” Canadian Journal of Public
Health / Revue Canadienne De

Sante’e Publique, vol. 96, 2005, pp. S43–S46. JSTOR, JSTOR, 16 January 2018


 This article illustrates how variations in
mental health may contribute to or inluence unhealthy eating. The connection
between eating and mental health is bi-directional. A person’s psychological
state or mood can impact how much and what one eats. Also eating habits affects
one’s psychological well-being and mood. Therefore, if we want to develop and
advertise to encourage healthy eating strategies, it is important to understand
the connections between mental health and healthy eating.  To contribute to this understanding, the
article examines research on differences of how food makes people react, as
well as mood, social, emotional, and collective influences on how much and what
is eaten. Then the implications of how the connections relate to mental health,
with a focus on adults and adolescents are examined. Later, the relation
between eating and mental health is examined from another direction. Research
investigating whether or nit the amount that someone eats or particular foods
one ingests can make one feel good or bad about oneself is examined. In all,
overeating and under eating have complex and differing effects. Sometimes
eating habits contribute to improved feelings of well-being and at other times
eating habits make the individual deprived, feel guilty, depressed, and or


Walsh, B. Timothy, and Michael J. Devlin. “Eating Disorders:
Progress and Problems.”

Science, vol.  280, no. 5368, 1998, pp. 1387–1390. JSTOR.

13 January 2018


This article provides evidence how recent
research on Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa has produced a progressively
detailed understanding of the spectrum of biological and psychological
abnormalities associated with these eating disorders. The three main contributes
that appear to the onset of extreme dieting, binge eating, and purging are adverse
individual and family experiences, inherited vulnerabilities, and cultural
pressures. These behaviors, once initiated, give rise to several physiological
disturbances. Many of these disturbances may serve to perpetuate the illness.

Although there have been great advances in ways to control and manage Bulimia
Nervosa. Offering effective treatment to all individuals with eating disorders is
the goal to treat Bulimia Nervosa; however, it remains elusive. Overall, this
article also reviews current thinking on the treatment and etiology of the two
major eating disorders and a related syndrome, Binge Eating Disorder.


Zodda, J. Jason. , “More to Them Then
Meets The Mouth.” Eating Disorders,

Institute of Technology,
Nov. 2003, 14 January 2018


This article provides
information and evidence that there is not a single cause to any eating
disorder. Also it provides that there is no one set of individuals that can be
diagnosed with any eating disorder. Everyone is at risk. This article focuses
on the causes and prevalence of the two most common eating disorders, anorexia
nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. There are many differing and possible causes that
lead to an eating disorder. Some of the most common are culture, environment,
family life, and genetic disorders. Eating disorders tend to have several risks
and negative results. Many victims or patients have shown a pattern leading up to
the disorder; it is a slow process rather then a simple change in diet. The
variety of people with eating disorders is spread across races, genders,
height, and weight. Backgrounds of people with eating disorders are unlimited and
no one can be considered immune. Women are the most common victims; however,
men are affected as well. Sexual orientation, age, and culture show patterns in
the prevalence of eating disorders. Overall, everyone is a possible victim.

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