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is a diverse field of expressing emotions, technical and imaginative skills of
the creator that can be expressed in form of visual or auditory representation.
Art has always been used by humans to communicate and express emotion since the
beginning of time from early Stone Age to present. The craftsman knows what he
wants to make before he makes it. The making of a work of art is a strange and
risky business in which the maker never knows quite what he is making until he
makes it (Collingwood, 1938).


can be viewed and interpreted in many ways, each person has his own unique
judgment, but when art viewed by an expert they use set of rules to judge an
artwork this is known as art criticism. Art criticism is the analysis and
evaluation of artwork in theoretical perspective and to evaluate its importance
in the history of art.  Experts who criticize
art follow certain guideline for art criticism these are known as elements of
arts and principles of art. These guidelines are also used by artist to
strengthen their artwork and to have more impact on their audience.

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of art is kind of like all the basic material needed to make an art. Elements
of art consists of lines, shape, color, value, form, space, texture. Lines can
be straight, curved, thick, thin and etc. Color used in art can be bright,
monochromatic or dull. Value is the level of brightness or darkness in colors used.
Space is the element which highlights the positive or negative aspects of the
art or can be used to achieve level of depth in art. Form and shape and 3 dimensional
and 2 dimensional elements of art form has volume and depth while shape only
has area. Finally, texture is the how the object feels or looks. Mostly all the
elements in art varies according to artist mood and level of expertise to
express these emotions with depth in art.


of arts is how efficiently the basic material (elements of art) is used.
Principle of arts consists of rhythm, balance, emphasis, proportion, gradation,
harmony, variety, movement. Rhythm and movement are principles used in artwork
to show illusion of movement. Balance is the principle to add stability or equilibrium
to the artwork which can be further categorized by symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Harmony is combing similar visually satisfying objects together. Emphasis is
creating a main focus or making a center of attention in the artwork. Proportion
is the sense of size comparison in the art work. Gradation is basically combing
similar element with slow change like shading. Variety also known as unity is
add the sense of completion in the artwork.


the use of elements of arts and adding complex principles in art makes the
artwork have more impact and longer lasting impression on the audience, which
means the better the artist’s elements and principles of art are the better the
artwork the artist can make.

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