Poverty and Inequality since 1980
World Bank Polict Research
Working Paper 3333, June 2004
The main issue highlighted from the
author is the effect of global economic integration
on inequality and poverty. In this
research paper are analized 5 trends. Starting from the growth rates of poor
countries which are higher than the growth rates of rich ones. Going on with:
The number of poor people has declined, Inequality among citizines has declined
and that there is no general trend toward higher inequality within countries.
Last, but not least, wage inequality, though, is rising worldwide.
The above issue, analizing the trends and
the documentation about this trends over the long term and the recent wave of
globalization is important because this is the only way that we can get a
better understanding of the global inequality and if integration affects in a
good way even the developing countries.
There is a vast literature review
presented in this study ???
The method used is quantitative as it
presents gathered historical information/ trends including what is accurate
also. The data is reliable and one can understand that by the repeatability of
findings (also by checking the references used). This research is credible so
it is valid.
As for the conclusion, by the facts
stated on the research paper we can clearly accept that integration of poor
economies with riches has provided opportunitites for those countries.
ARTICLE 2: Some Consequences of Globalization for
Institute of World Economics, Working Paper No. 753, July 1996
Gundlach and Peter Nunnenkamp
It is widely accepted that globalization
improves the prospects for developing countries to catch up the rythms of
industrialized countries. However, there are some observers that are very
pessimistic for this integration. In this research topic we analize the three
main reasons as drawbacks and if they are actually valid.
There is a vast literature review. We notice
that hypothesis like these are discussed over and over again, as long as there
is always new data to consider.
The method used starts with giving facts
as how manufactures has grown faster than total world trade, to go on with the
empirical evidence on trade and FDI which supports the proposition of an
enhanced integration of DCs into globalization strategies.
The author address reliability and
Globalization offers better chances to
Developing Countries, since this integration in itself is a key to ease the
inflow of capital and technology. Refused membersip in major regional
intergration schemes and the lack of preferential trade agreements with such
scemes cannot be blamed for the failure of many DCs in the past to participate
in the international devision of labour. The main responsibility belongs to the
ARTICLE 4: The Role of “Globalization” in
ARTICLE 3: The “IKEA EFFECT”: When Labor Leads to
HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL
Michael I. Norton, Daniel Mochon, Dan
In this paper is analized if we value
more the self-made products or products in which we contribute to build them,
like the Ikea case. So, there are experiments conducted to show that labor
increases valuation of the completed products, but not for the projects or
products that we fail to do.
There is a vast literature review
presented in the current study. This idea was originally described in a faded
way by Arkes (1985), “The Psychology of Sunk Cost”, Organizational Behavior and
Human Decision Processes, to continue with Bandura,Albert (1977),
“Self-Efficiancy: Towards a Unifiyng Theory Of Behavioral Change”.
The method used starts with the
conducting of 3 different experiment. At the first experiment is demonstrated
the basic effect, showing that the participant assembles the product with a
feeling of increased value. Meanwhile at the second and third experiment, he
either failed to assemble the product or disassembled it, in both cases there is no increased valuation.
This study is consistent with the ones of other researchers, so the experiments
conducted and the conclusion are valid and reliable.
As a parallelism with the Business world
and managers is proved that the ideas that managers conceive of and labor on
from the very beginning are those most prone to the overvaluation due to labor.