Video games in their
60-year history have changed a lot. The first gaming machine was created in
1940, but the development of video games began in the early seventies with the
first home console Odyssey and video game Pong in 1972, which has become one of
the famous, first truly successful commercial game of today. Since then
computers have become so common that anyone could create their own game.
Nowadays, creating games requires
large financial resources and is associated with a high risk of failure. To
reduce the risk of low sales of the game, both large companies and
individual developers must carefully plan production processes before starting
the game development process.
Terms of Reference
STEPHEN COLBERT (Lecturer)
has requested PIOTR GRZEBIELSKI to write a report to examine: Video Game
Development. It is a requirement of Communication, Level 6 unit, F3GB 12, and
is due to be submitted on 27 October 2017.
Research for this report
was conducted primarily via internet, by visiting reputable websites of
journals, newspapers, and official reports.
Video games are hardly ever
built in a consistent manner. Instead, creative teams of up to 200 people jump
back and forth between different stages of the development process and often
entirely different companies are tasked with handling certain components like
multiplayer. In general, however the game development process starts and ends
with a number of particular phases.
The process of creating
games starts with the simple concept or idea. Usually this is an original
concept created inside the company, but it happens that the idea is taken from
outside. Often it is a continuation of the existing title, or the plot of the
game is based on movies, comics, folklore or history.
After developing the storyline, the company needs to do a
storyboard, which is a visual representation of the plot, including sketches,
concepts, and text to explain what is going on in every section or scene of the
the same stage, it analyzes how the game will play, what is the game’s purpose
and rules, and maps of different worlds or levels in the game. Software
engineers decide what exactly happens on the screen when a specific button is
pressed, which may and may not be the interaction that script events occur, and
how the non-controlled characters react to what the player is doing.
The team must (also) consider the platform on which the game
will operate, its technical capabilities and limitations. Developers are limited by
the technical specifications of the particular platform their game is being
created for. The engine is the most important component of the game. It
compiles code and visual assets.
Story development and
After defining a simple
concept and choosing a platform, producers, designers, programmers and artists
will work on issues such as storytelling, scripting and creating complete
design documents detailing game objectives, design levels, game mechanics. When
the game is created on the original concept, the authors of the scripts,
artists and designers have the freedom to create. In cases where game
development is based on a simulation of a real event or license, creative
freedom is often limited to acceptable within the real or realm world.
In this stage visual
artists are tasked with gathering reference material and designing the look and
feel of the game world within the boundaries set by the script writers. It is
here that various game designers can see if their ideas will work in practice.
In phase three concept art is translated into
the digital space. Together with professional level designers 2d and 3d artists
build everything the player will see. This step enables the development team to
use the latest in computer animation technology to bring the game elements to
life by adding colours, textures, shading and of course movement. After
developing a preliminary version of each character, the animators superimpose a
skeleton. By manipulating the skeleton they make the character move. Other
animators work on the backgrounds the games playing field. Once they have a
rough version laid out they refine it by adding details, colours and textures. To
give a depth and dimension they use virtual lighting to create shading and
shadows. To advance the storyline, video game is interspersed with animated movies
called cinematics. To make a cinematics action look realistic they use a
technique called motion capture. The animators videotaped famous actors
performing the action, then use animation software to reproduce it on the
In production, producers
will collaborate with teams of designers, artists and programmers to make sure
everyone is working together and are at the same stage. Schedules are respected
to ensure that the goals of the project are adhered to throughout the
development of the game.
When the game is
theoretically starting to look like a designer’s vision, testing begins. By
performing focus tests, developers see what is difficult for the players, and
then improve or fix them. During this production phase, the original vision is
likely to change in small ways to correct errors in the design. Continuing to
focus on testing and improving the gameplay, the game is polished. Developers
privately or publicly share alpha and beta versions of their game gathering
feedback and bug reports which can fix before release and use to make sure
everything is as engrossing and compelling as possible. Once completed the
games assets and code are sent off to be printed on disks and distributed to
retail stores across the globe or release digitally.
The final stage of game
development regards updates and patches to fix more bugs and glitches, as well
as either paid or free story based or multiplayer downloadable content to key
players enjoying the game a couple years after release.
Technology, especially games are developing at a rapid speed,
therefore developers who want to become important competitors, must analyze the
future of the gaming market. They should be open to new distributions for their
Creating video games is a complex process but giving
developers great satisfaction and chances for personal development and
significant financial gains. Game developing covers so many areas, through
creating a scenario, music, graphics, drawing and managing, that almost
everyone who want to create games finds something for themselves and can be a
co-creator of virtual entertainment history.
With a bad managing it can
last for many years, absorb a lot of financial resources and end up failing.
Therefore, besides it’s a good idea on the game and willingness it is important
to choose the necessary number of people, designate and calculate the so-called
milestones. Developers also need to determine on what platform the game will be
displayed and what technologies may appear in the near future to move the title
to the newly created devices.
A couple of documents are
presented to the game publishers. Detailing concepts fleshed out in stage one.
Independent valves usually pitch their game ideas to the public in order to
raise money, generally through the help of websites like Kickstarter.