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Basic uses include fertilizer manufacturing, mineral processing, wastewater processing, oil re?ning, , and chemical synthesis. Sulphuric acid is used for a wide range of purposes both domestically and industrially. Sulphuric acid is used in the production of:? Drain cleaners? Detergents? Synthetic resins? Pharmaceuticals? Petroleum catalysts? Insecticides? Antifreeze? Batteries? Pigments such as paint, enamels, and printing inksDomestic uses:Sulphuric acid at higher concentrations is often the main ingredient in acidic drain cleaners which are used to remove fats, proteins, grease, hair etc. In addition to this, being a strong dehydrating agent, it can remove tissue paper through dehydrating process as well. As the acid reacts vigorously with water thus such drain openers should be added carefully into the pipe to be unclogged.Industrial Uses:Industrial production of chemicals:The main use for sulphuric acid is for the production of phosphoric acid, usedfor manufacturing phosphate fertilizers. Raw material is treated with sulphuric acid to produce calcium sulphate, hydrogen ;uoride (HF) and phosphoric acid.Ca5F(PO4)3 + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O ? 5 CaSO4·2 H2O + HF + 3 H3PO4Another paramount use for sulphuric acid is for the production of aluminium sulphate, that can react with soap on paper pulp ?bers to convert them to aluminium carboxylates, which assist in coagulation of pulp ?bers into a hard paper surface. Sulphur–iodine cycle:The sulphur-iodine cycle is a chain of thermo-chemical processes which is used to yield hydrogen. It consists of three chemical reactions. The sulphur and iodine compounds are recovered and reused.2 H2SO4 ? 2 SO2 + 2 H2O + O2 (830 °C)I2 + SO2 + 2 H2O ? 2 HI + H2SO4 (120 °C)2 HI ? I2 + H2 (320 °C)Industrial cleaning agent:Sulphuric acid is used in large quantities by the steelmaking andiron industry to remove rust, oxidation, and scaling from billets and rolledsheets before sale.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be added to sulphuric acid to produce piranhasolution, a powerful cleaning solution which is usually used in the microelectronics industry, and also for cleaning glassware in laboratories.Catalyst:Sulphuric acid is the typical acid catalyst for the conversion of cyclohexanone oximeto , used for making nylon. It is also used in electrophilic aromatic sulphonation and nitration. Sulphuric acid is also oftenused as a dehydrating or oxidising agent in industrial reactions, such as the dehydration of various sugars to form solid carbon.Electrolyte:Sulphuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead–acid batteries:At anode:Pb + SO42? ? PbSO4 + 2 e?At cathode:PbO2 + 4 H+ + SO42? + 2 e? ? PbSO4 + 2 H2OOverall: Pb + PbO2 + 4 H+ + 2 SO42? ? 2 PbSO4 + 2 H2OGHINA MUMTAZ AL

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