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a child can express what they want or feel verbally, they first show aggression
and frustration through physical response such as biting, grabbing, hitting,
and pushing things away (Kutner, L., 2016).

In an article regarding “The Impact of Electronic Media Violence” L. Rowell
Huesmann states that violent behavior is increased due to playing
violent video games, watching turbulent television, and exposure daily to an environment
and media that is filled with violence (Huesmann, L.R., 2007).   .In the
current review, this research evidence is critically assessed, and the
psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental
effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated (Huesmann, L.R., 2007).
 According to Huesmann, “For better or
worse the mass media are having an enormous impact on our children’s values,
beliefs, and behaviors. (Huesmann, L.R., 2007)”. Data showed an increase in aggressive moods or thoughts
and hostility after playing violent video games and suggested impairment of
prosocial behavior (Fournis, G., & Abou, N. N., 2014).

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In a study described by Moffitt, T. E., & the Klaus-Grawe, 2012, children
who were given a reward in place of violent behavior continued to exude hostile
and act aggressively (Moffitt, T. E., & the Klaus-Grawe, 2012).

Indirect forms of aggression in both
boys and girls can include telling lies. 
Relational aggression is also indirect form of aggression whereas they
target a personal relationships and social status, such as by threatening to
end friendships, engaging in gossip, and trying to get others to dislike
another. (Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2017). 
According to Anderson and Bushman, statistics show that exposure to violent video games
increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings (Anderson, C.
and Bushman, B., 2001).   Playing violent video games also decreases
prosocial behavior (Anderson, C. and Bushman, B., 2001).  Research continues to demonstrate that
parent’s involvement is the most critical factor in the well-being of today’s
adolescents (Anderson, C. and Bushman, B., 2001). 

Family Activities


Over the
years, having time to spend as a family and do activities together has dropped
dramatically with both parents working and maintaining a home.  Family activities are important and should
replace television, video games, and other types of social media viewing.   Some suggestions for family activities would
be to have daily or weekend plans to spend time outdoors.   Depending on the season there are several
easy and inexpensive activities that the family can do together such as having
a picnic in the park or even the backyard.  
Hiking along your local trails along with riding bicycles.   Sports, hiking, park, Frisbee, outdoor
activities, swimming.  Spending time in
the kitchen with your children is also fun along with teaching them at the same
time.   Allow them to be part of the food
preparation for breakfast, lunch or dinner.  
Another fun idea that is popping up is movie nights in the backyard.   A projector on a sheet or screen or even
moving the Television to the patio can be fun.  
Items that could cost some money that I would suggest is day tripping to
the zoo, beach, or camping for the weekend.  
Other ideas for those rainy or snowy days can be to play board games, or
even do crafts, which for young boys could be derby cars.






            Social learning theory is behavior that is learned
through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of
rewards and punishment (Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2017).   Learning is not just from our parents and
those in our surroundings but from people who are on TV, the internet,
portrayed in movies, which can be powerful role models and aggression can be
learned from them (Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2017).    Television and social media does not need to
be banned completely, but should be monitored.  
It is suggested that parents take time to sit and explain things that
children seen on the television that include acts of violence.   Unfortunately, it seems violence is
everywhere these days and conversations should be taking place between the parents
and their children.  Regardless to
how much parents try and shield their children from violence and witnessing
aggressive behavior it is in many parts of their lives regardless of their
socio-demographic background (Mitrofan,
O., Paul, M., Weich, S., & Spencer, N., 2014).      Children of
any age should always be able to ask any question or express their feelings
that could be of fear or aggression from what they are viewing and hearing from primarily real-life and secondly virtual (Mitrofan, O., Paul, M., Weich, S., & Spencer, N.,




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