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Before the process of revolution, Italy was ruled principally by foreign powers and monarchs. The citizens of Italy wanted change of freedom and a change in the government. The first attempt of revolt wad disorganised and consequently failed as there was too much division due to separate groups. There had to be unity in order for there to be success. Some of the main revolutionaries, Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour and the many independence wars, it was possible to see a more unified nation and government. John Grooch reveals that William Ewart Gladstone describes Italy’s unification as “among the greatest marvels of our time”  (Gooch , J, 2002).  Following the country’s reconstruction and unification, there arrived a surge of people, consequently causing overpopulation. Thanks to this, the unification of the country was successful and there could be a political restructuring.


Italy was divided into 10 states before 1976. These were The Kingdom of Sardinia, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Lucca, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Modena, The Duchy of Milan and the Duchy of Parma. They were all very different as economies, currencies, dialects and rulers varied vastly. In 1976 with his French army, Napoleon defeated Austria, making them surrender Italy and sign the treaty of Campo Formio, which gave Napoleon the power to take over the north of Italy.

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Therefore prior to gaining its independence, most of Italy was controlled by the French. The Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Italy which were provinces annexed to France were the most controlled regions. By 1810 the north and the centre of Italy united due to this foreign rule. The kingdom of Italy was ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte and the Kingdom of Naples by Joseph Bonaparte, later by Joachim Murat in 1808. After conquering Italy, Bonaparte left some important characteristics: an efficient government, showed the population benefits of a united Italy and a dislike towards foreign influence. After his fall, countries such as Austria, Russia, Prussia and the United Kingdom would decide what would be done with Italy that Napoleon had conquered. It was consequently decided that each of the different monarchs would have control over a part of Italy.




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