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                                          CHAPTER 1


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Today demand of automobiles is more due to
population growth has result in great demand for petroleum products. With crude
oil reserves estimated to last for few decades, there have been many researcher
find alternate fuels. The depletion of crude oil could reason a primary effect
on the transportation sector. Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative biofuel,
which is produced from Sunflower, karanja, jatropha, waste cooking oil, thumba,
soybeans, animal fats, alge etc. These are domestic and renewable source. The
extracted crude oil cannot be used as a directly in diesel engine because it
has a high viscosity; due to high viscosity of pure vegetable oils it will be
responsible for high engine deposits and lubricating oil thickening. That would
reduce the fuel atomization and increase fuel spray penetration. To create a
biodiesel blend it can be blended with conventional diesel. Biodiesel is
manufacture from a chemical process which is known as transesterification.
Biofuels are mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acid derived from renewable
biological sources. Biofules can be directly used in the compression ignition
engine without modify of existing engine. Biodiesel fuel is a clean burning
resource and it is the future of the world.


Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils, waste cooking oil
is the alternative fuel to blend with diesel. Following reason biodiesel can be
used in the engine.

is made from vegetable, waste cooking oil, alge etc.Biodiesel
can be used without any changes in existing engine. Biodiesel
have no contained sulfur, aromatic, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. 

Much research work has been done how to use
vegetable oil both in its pure form and blended form. Many project have been
shown that the usage of vegetable oils in pure form is possible but not
preferable with the advent of the industrial revolution, the use of energy in
the form of fossil fuels began, this occurred in stages, from the exploration
of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural gas but, how long can
we depend on this declining fossil fuels to run our car engine, to light our
kitchen stove. The secondary viscosity of vegetable oils and the low
instability influences that atomization. Furthermore spread example for fuel,
prompting inadequate burning, what’s more extreme carbon deposits, injector
gagging, what more piston ring is staying. Those routines utilized to decrease
viscosity need aid mixing for diesel, emulsification, pyrolysis, transesterification.

Sunflower oil can be effectively replacing
diesel fuel. Application of diesel oil is in the transport sector, agriculture
form and industries for generating electricity, running pumps and tractors. The
entire use of diesel oil can be substituted with vegetable oil. The properties
of sunflower oil very close together diesel. The sunflower oil can also be
converted to bio-diesel and used in automobile sector.

There are various advantages of using sunflower oil:

(1) The
cost of 1 liter sunflower oil is approx. Rs. 60/-hence it is approx. same price
of diesel.

Sunflower oil as fuels can provide good lubrication to the engine.

      (3) No toxic
gases emission, no greenhouse gas emission.

 Sunflower seeds can be grown in waste lands
and other lands with low nutritional content. The plant is also a nitrogen
fixer. The
dependence on sunflower oil would generate employment in rural areas.


Biofuels are fossil fuel substitutes that can
be made from a range of agricultural crops and other sources of biomass. Any
hydrocarbon fuel that is produced from organic matter (living or once living
material) in a short period of time – days, weeks, or even months, is
considered as biofuel. They are considered as an alternative source of energy

security – increasing oil prices, need for alternative source of energy To
decrease greenhouse gas emission To
promote rural development                   

Block diagram of biofuel: 1.1

Biodiesel can be used in pure biodiesel or
blended with petroleum diesel. Mostly blends use B5 (5% biodiesel), B15 (5%
biodiesel), and B20 (20% biodiesel).

 B00 fuel (Pure

 B10 fuel (90%
Diesel + 10% Biodiesel)

 B15 fuel (85%
Diesel + 15% Biodiesel)

 B20 fuel (80%
Diesel + 20% Biodiesel)

 B25 fuel (75%
Diesel + 25% Biodiesel)

fuel (70% Diesel + 30% Biodiesel

Mostly use of biodiesel blends up to B5 or up
to B20 for practical assessment. Using the wrong blends can be damage the engine. Basically two type of biofuel first
generation and second generation bio fuels. In First generation biofuel is made
from sugar, starchy crops, vegetable oil or animal fat using conventional
technology like biodiesel, biogas, bioalcohols and Second generation biofuel is
produced from suitable feedstock like bioethanol, biohydrogen, diesel, algae
fuel, cellulose fuel, wood diesel.

The estimated consumption of diesel in the
world at the end of the year 2005 was 960 billion liters. On the other hand,
the production of biodiesel during the same year was 4.2 billion liters. For
example, assuming that 2% of diesel was replaced with biodiesel, it would mean
an increase of 15 billion liters in the biodiesel global
production. In biodiesel plant different type of biodiesel oil use according to
their availability, cost, efficiency and environment concern.




Palm oil


Soy oil


Rapeseed oil


Sunflower oil


Cotton oil


Palm oil (seed)


Peanut oil


Coconut oil


Olive oil



                     Table 1.1 World productions of
vegetable oils, 2008/2009.

types of Biodiesele sources:

oil: Palm oil is
retrieved from the Palm fruit. The scientific name of palm oil is elaeis
guineensis and its popular name: African oil palm. Columbia is largest producer
of palm oil.

Rapeseed or canola oil: Rapeseed is a specie oil see

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