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Chapter # 3

Research Methodology

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Nature of
business research

1.1  Deductive vs Inductive

There are two types of research approaches
which can be used to conduct the research, it can be a deduction approach or
deduction approach (Bryman & Bell, 2011). In induction approach the
research develop a new theory from the empirical investigation. In inductive
process, researchers find a research problem that should be explored after that
they do the observation and from the empirical data they gathered themselves
draw the conclusion regarding the research problem. In contrast of the
induction approach, in deductive research researchers developed the hypotheses
o the bases of existing theories and then develop a strategy to test the

In this study, deductive research approach
has been used because the researcher has developed the hypothesis on the bases
of the exiting theories. All the factors are tested in the new context which is
in the luxury industry more specifically in clothing and cosmetics products.

1.2  Quantitative vs qualitative

Deductive approach and inductive approach both
are related either to qualitative or qualitative studies. Inductive research is
normally related to the qualitative study because qualitative study is not as
formal, controlled and structured (Bryman & Bell, 2011). Deductive approach
is suitable for the quantitative study because the theories are already developed
but the new hypothesis shall be tested. In quantitative research method
generalizability of the results are more emphasized than the qualitative
research method. Qualitative research method is used with the aim to collect
the data that is calculable and measurable (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2005).
Quantitative method is mostly used when the researchers want to examine the
impact between the variables, describe the relationship among the variables and
to examine the cause and effect relationship between the variables. The purpose
of qualitative research is to collect the data that is interpretable. The
qualitative research method is suitable when the researcher wants to explore
something and wants to get the in-depth understanding about the phenomena. In
this study, the quantitative research method has been used to find the results
of the problem.


of the study

The main purpose of this study is to
examine the effect of website quality on the consumer online purchase intention
with moderating role consumer perceived risk in cosmetics and clothing products

of study

There are three most common form of the
research studies that are related to the marketing.




If the research problem is not clearly defined and
only a little research has been conducted on this topic then an exploratory
research is suitable for this study (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2005; Bryman &
Bell, 2011). In most cases this form of research study is used in qualitative
studies (Ghauri & Gronhaugh, 2005; Bryman & Bell, 2011, Hair et al.,
2011). If the purpose of the research is clearly defined and to the point then
descriptive research is suitable for this study (Hair et al., 2011).
Descriptive research can be used either in qualitative study and quantitative study.
If the purpose of the research is to examine the cause and effect relationships
among the variables than the explanatory research will be suitable for this
study. The explanatory research is also known as causal research. The problem
which are mostly discussed in this study is how the variables are related to each

In this study, we want to examine cause and effect
relationships between the website quality and consumer online purchase
intention and want to see the effect of consumer perceived risk on the
relationship of website quality and consumer online purchase intention. The
explanatory research is more suitable for this study because this form of
research study provides us the opportunity to examine how these variables are
related and to explain if these variables are related. So, the study is
explanatory in nature. The study is cross sectional studies because the data is
collected from the targeted sample that is derived from the target population
at the given time (Hair et al., 2011).

Data sources

can be collected from two ways, either from primary source or a secondary
source. In primary source data is gathered by the researcher himself from the
participants for the specific purposes. Primary sources of data are interview,
survey, experimental and focus group etc. The main difference between the
primary and secondary source of data is that primary data is unique and
original because it is directly collected from the participants from a specific
source according to the requirement of his research problem. In secondary
source, data is gathered by the other person than the researcher himself. Some
common sources of secondary data are the published articles, magazines,
documentaries and newspaper etc. Both sources have some advantages and
disadvantages. Primary sources of data are considered very expensive and time
consuming than the secondary sources of data. The advantage of secondary sources
of data is that it is very easiest and cheapest sources of data.

this study, the primary source is used to collect the data because the primary
sources of data enabled the researcher to gather the relevant information to get
the answer of the research problem.

Data collection method

are many different types of instruments that a researcher can used for
collection of the data but it depends on whether it is qualitative study or a
quantitative study (Bryman & Bell, 2011). As this study is a quantitative
study therefore all the instruments of qualitative data collection have been
excluded from the study. In quantitative study data is collected through
questionnaire, experiment and structured observations.

the data is collected by the experimental method the participants that involved
in this experimental they are observed within the highly controlled
circumstances. This method of data collection is very time consuming and very
difficult for the researcher to control the stetting where the study is being

structured observation is another quantitative data collection method. In this
data collection method, the researchers observe the specific phenomena in its
natural setting. This method systematically observing the behavior of the
individuals. The researchers observe the behavior of the individually when they
are unaware of it so it allows the researchers that they can observed their
behavior directly.

In quantitative research, surveys are used to collect the data. Surveys can
be done in the form of questionnaire or structured interview. Questionnaire is
considered very effective and easiest method of data collection for the
researcher because it consumes the less time as compared to another method. In
this study questionnaire is used to collect the data because by using this
method a lot information can be gained from a very little amount of time.

  Data collection technique



and Sample size

When a
research decides to collect the primary data, he must define the target
population. He must define that from where he will collect the data. Target
population refers to the group of the people from whom the researcher wants to
get the information. The target population of this study is all the students of
(Both Public and Private) from Lahore who have browsed or visited on any online
cosmetics and clothing website at least one time.

researcher can gather the data from the selected sample by using probability
sampling or non-probability sampling. A sampling technique in which all the
respondents have the equal chance to represent the target population is called
a probability sampling and a sampling technique in which each respondent has
not an equal chance to be selected rather the participants are selected based
on their availability to the researcher. In this study, non-probability
sampling technique is used to select the participants. Convenience sampling,
purposive sampling and quota sampling are three most common types of
non-probability sampling technique. Convenience sampling involves selecting the
sample on the bases of the people who are readily available. In this study, data
is collected by using the convenience sampling method of non-probability sampling
technique. The target sample for this study is only student of Lahore college
for women university (LCWU), Punjab University (PU), Government college university
(GCU) and University of engineering and technology (UET) who
have browsed or visited any online cosmetics and clothing website at least one
time. As the population of the study is very large and the sample which is derived
from the population is also very huge therefore from the targeted sample,
sample size is derived through the formula which is the 350 students of the
LCWU, GCU, PU and UET who have browsed or visited any online cosmetics and
clothing website at least one time.

Data analysis method and techniques

The data
which is gathered from the questionnaire is analyzed in data program SPSS.
Several steps are involved in the data analyses methods like coding the data,
enter the data, reliability test, validity test, multiple regression analysis
and testing of hypothesis.





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