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Class:
Oligochaeta

Diagnosis:
Annelids with segmentally arranged hook like chaetae embedded in the skin,
appendages and suckers absent.

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Family
Moniligastridae

Diagnosis:
Lumbricine. Dorsal pores absent. Spermathecal pores anterior to male pores.
Oesophageal gizzards posterior to ovarian segment. Ovaries band shaped, Ova
large, yolky. Holonephric.

Distribution:
Southeast and eastern Asia from south India to Manchuria, Korea, Japan, The
Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra.  

Remarks: In Western Himalaya, the
Family is represented by one genus Drawida,
Michaelsen.

 

Genus
Drawida Michaelsen, 1990

1886. Moniligaster (in part), Beddard, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser 5), 17:
94

1900. Drawida Michaelsen, Tierreich, 10: 114.

1923. Drawida, Stephenson, Fauna Br. India, Oligochaeta: 124.

1945. Drawida, Gates, Jl. R. Asiat. Soc. Beng. (Sci.), 11: 55.

1962. Drawida, Gates, Bull. Mus. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., 127: 305.

1972. Drawida, Gates, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 62: 244.

Diagnosis:
Male pores paired at or near intersegmental furrow 10/11; female pores paired,
at or just posterior to intersegmental furrow11/12; spermathecal pores paired,
at or close to intersegmental furrow 7/8. Clitellum on segments 10-13.
Oesophagus with one to several gizzards, in segments 12-27; intestinal caeca
and supra-intestinal glands absent. Prostates capsular, paired, in segment 10;
Holonephric.

Type species:
Moniligaster brawelli Beddard, 1886.

Distribution:
India, Nepal, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, China, Korea, Manchuria,
Siberia, Japan, Phillippine islands, Borneo. 

 

1.     
Drawida japonica (Michaelsen, 1892)

(Figure
4.79)

1892.
Moniligaster japonicus Michaelsen,
Arch. Naturgesch., 58: 232

1900.
Drawida japonica, Michaelsen,
Tierreich, 10: 115.

1909.?
Drawida willsi (in part), Michaelsen,
Mem. Indian Mus., 1: 143

1923. Drawida
japonica f. typical (in part), Stephenson, Fauna Br. India, Oligochaeta:
142 (excluding Moniligaster bahamensis
from Bhamas).

1933.
Drawida japonica (? In part), Chen,
Contr. Boil. Lab. Sci. Soc. China (Zool.), 9: 189.

1938.
Drawida japonica, Kobayashi, Sci.
Rep. Tohoku Univ., 13: 94.

1939.
Drawida japonica, Gates, Proc. U.S.
natn. Mus., 85: 411.

2010.
Drawida japonica, Blakemore, Zoo Keys, 41: 16.

2012. Drawida japonica, Blakemore, Cosmopolitan Earthworms: 161.

 

Description:
Length 55-97 mm, diameter 2.6-3.5 mm, number of segments 121-143. Clitellum on
segments 10-13, sometimes extending to segment 9. Setae lumbricine closely
paired; aa=7.0-7.9, ab=0.90-0.94, bc=6.28-7.1, cd=0.21-0.23, dd on segment 8,
aa=7.65-10.45, ab=0.61-0.83, bc= 7.65-10.45, cd=0.20-0.24, dd on segment 35.
Male pores paired, tiny on posterior margin of segment 10, at centers of
slightly protuberant porophores in bc, nearer to setae b than c. Spermathecal
pores paired, circular to short transverse slits in intersegmental furrow 7/8 at
or slightly median to setae c. Female pores paired, at or just posterior to
intersegmental furrow11/12 in b line. Genital markings circular to
transversally oval, usually protuberant, each marking with an opaque rim and a
central grayish translucent circular area. Location of genital markings greatly
variable, paired or single on only left or right side, close to mid ventral
line, presetal or postsetal or on setal arc, at ab or median to a or b or c setal
lines, or lateral to b lines on some of segments 7-12. Nephridiopores
irregularly alternating between cd and ab setal line.

Septa
5/6-8/9 muscular, 9/10 delicate. Gizzards 2-3 in segments 12-14. Testes sacs
paired, ovoidal in segments 9 and 10, unconstricted by septum 9/10. Vas deferens
short 2.22 mm long passing beneath longitudinal muscle layer before opening at
about middle of slender and tubular prostatic capsule. Prostrates glandular
shortly club shaped and erect. Segment 11 closed off; ovarian chamber
horseshoe shaped; ovisacs paired in segments 14-17, with slender rod like
projections extending to segment 26, sometimes into posteriad segments.
Spermathecae paired diverticulate; duct rather thick, about 3mm long diverticulum
pear shaped, erect on posterior face of septum 7/8; spermathecal duct passing
into atrium just below its ental end. Genital marking glands spherical,
coelomic.

Material
examined: Chail: 22
aclitellate, 3 clitellate; cultivation; altitude: 2200 m; Solan: 4 aclitellate;
mixed forest; 15 aclitellate, 5 clitellate; Pine forest; 209 aclitellate, 34
clitellate; cultivation; 21 aclitellate, 19 clitellate; orchard; altitude: 1463
m.

Type
locality: Japan

Distribution: Himachal Pradesh: Banikhet, Khajjiar,
Kalatop, Chaned in Chamba district; Sindhari Village in Hamirpur district;
McLeodganj in Kangra district; Largi village, Sainj in Kullu district; Barrot
in Mandi district; Ghanahati in Shimla district; Naina Tikkar in Sirmour
district; Dharampur, Gambhar Bridge, Arki, Solan, Subathu, Sadhupul, Deothal,
Shilli forest, Barog in Solan district;

Outside Himachal Pradesh: Jammu and Kashmir,
Uttarakhand.

Outside India: Pakistan,
China, Japan, Taiwan,
Ryukyu Islands, Korea.

Physicochemical
parameters of soil: Soil type sandy loam; pH-6.5-7.4;
Moisture-20.53-24.56%; OC-0.8-1.01%; N-0.048-0.054%; P-16.23-35.58 kg/h;
K-165.69-190.2 kg/h.

 

2. Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen, 1907

(Figure 4.80)

1907. Drawida
nepalensis Michaelsen, Jb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst., 24: 146.

1916. Drawida jalpaigurensis, Stephenson,
Rec. Indian Mus., 12:
307.

1923.
Drawida burchardi, Stephenson, Fauna Br. India, Oligochaeta: 134.

1923. Drawida
nepalensis (in part), Stephenson, Fauna Br. India Oligochaeta: 146.

1924. Drawida
troglodytes Stephenson, Rec. Indian Mus., 26: 129.

1925. Drawida
burchardi, Stephenson, Rec. Indian Mus., 27: 50.

1925. Drawida
hodgarti, Stephenson, Rec. Indian Mus., 27: 51.

1925. Drawida
papillifer (in part), Stephenson, Rec. Indian Mus., 27: 51

1926. Drawida
cacharensis Stephenson, Rec. Indian Mus., 28: 251.

1934. Drawida
nepalensis, Gates, Rec. Indian Mus., 36: 242.    

1934. Drawida
troglodytes, Gates, Rec. Indian Mus., 36: 253.

1962. Drawida nepalensis,
Gates, Bull. Mils. Compo Zool. Harv.,
127: 331.

1972. Drawida
nepalensis, Gates, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 62: 256.

2012.
Drawida japonica, Blakemore,
Cosmopolitan Earthworms: 173.

Description: Length 75-131mm, diameter
3.5-4mm, number of segments 142-172. Clitellum on segment 9-14. Setae
lumbricine closely paired; aa=5.31-6.1, ab=0.61-0.75, bc=6.2-7.63,
cd=0.17-0.22, dd on segment 8; aa=8.61-10.35, ab=0.73-0.82, bc=7.52-8.56,
cd=0.25-0.28 dd on segment 25. Male pores paired, at intersegmental furrow
10/11, at, mid bc line, each located on the tip of a conspicuously protuberant
porophore. Spermathecal pores paired, small, transverse slits, just median to c
lines. Female pores paired, at or just posterior to intersegmental furrow11/12
in ab setal line. Genital markings circular translucent areas, paired, on
anterior faces of male porophores, on segment 7, just anterior to spermathecal
pores. Nephridiopores in a single rank at d line.

Septa
5/6-8/9 muscular, 9/10 delicate. Gizzards 2-4 in segments 12-20. Testis sacs
paired, ovoidal in segments 9 and 10; vas deferens long slender, twisted into
cluster of loops that may be larger than testis sac, opening into ental end of
prostrate directly. Prostrates glandular, tubular, usually in a U-shaped loop;
prostatic capsule slendrly club shaped, 2-4 mm long. Ovarian chamber closed off from
parietes; ovisacs extending posteriorly to segment 14-15. Spermathecae
diverticulate; diverticulum saccular, 3-5 mm long. Genital marking glands
spheroidal, solid with translucent walls.

Material examined
Solan: 35 aclitellate, 40 clitellate; orchard; altitude: 1463 m.

Type locality:
Gowchar near. Kathmandu, Nepal

Distribution:
India: Himachal Pradesh: Sadwan village, Dadh, Nagrota, Neugal Khud in Kangra
district; Barchwar, Pandoh Dam, Joginder Nagar, Mohan Ghatti, Gumma, Dak Bagda,
Ner Chowk, Sunder Nagar, Hara Bagh  in
Mandi district;

Outside:
Himachal Pradesh: Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim,
Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Assam, Andaman and Nicobar Islands,

Outside
India: Nepal, Burma, Bangla Desh,
Pakistan, Myanmar, China, Andaman Islands, Java and Sumatra, Indonesia.

Physicochemical
parameters of soil: Soil type loamy fine sand; pH-7.04;
Moisture-21.36%; OC-0.7%; N-0.046%; P-19.59 kg/h; K-178.77 kg/h.

Remarks:
Drawida nepalensis resembles Drawida
barwelli, thus, there is a chance that Drawida
nepalensis is a junior synonym of Drawida
barwelli.

Family
Lumbricidae Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1815

1815. Lumbricidae Rafinesque-Schmaltz,

1900. Lumbricidae, Michaelsen, Tierreich, 10: 470.

1972. Lumbricidae, Gates, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 62(7): 61.

Diagnosis: Setae lumbricine. Dorsal pores present. Clitellum begins behind
segment 17 (rarely 15). Female pore paired on segment 14. Male pores usually
paired on segment 15. Prostates, oesophageal gizzards and intestinal caeca
absent. Intestinal gizzard single mostly in segment 17 or in two to four
segments between 17-20; calciferous glands intra- or extra-mural in some of segments
9, 10-14, 15. Intestine with typhlosole. Last pair of hearts before segment 12.
Holonephric.

Distribution: Palaerctic and North America (Holarctic). Several peregrine species
are very widely distributed (Blakemore, 2002).

Genus Aporrectodea Orely, 1885

1826. Enterion (in part), Savigny, Mem.
Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. (Hist), 5: 179

1895. Aporrectodea
Orley, Ertek. Term. Magyar Akad., 15 (18): 22

1900. Eisenia (in part),
Michaelsen, Tierreich, 10: 474.

1923. Allolobophora (Eophila), Stephenson, Fauna Br. India,
Oligichaeta: 503.

1972. Allolobophora (in
part), Gates, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 62: 68.

1975. Aporrectodea,
Gates, Megadrologica, 2(1): 4

1976. Aporrectodea,
Perel, Revue Ecol. Biol. Sol, 13(4): 635.

1983. Aporrectodea,
Easton, In Satchell, J.E. Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to Vermiculture: 476.

Diagnosis: Prostomium epilobic. Setae
closely paired. Male pores paired, on segment 15. Female pores paired, tiny,
slightly lateral to b, on setal arc of segment 14. Nephridiophores
inconspicuous. Gizzard mostly in segment 17; calciferous gland opening into
oesophagus through a pair of vertical sacs in segment 10. Extra oesophageal
vessels paired, joining dorsal blood vessel in segment 12. Nephridial vesicles
J- shaped, closed end laterad, curved part caudad.

Type species: Lumbricus trapezoides
Duges, 1828.

Distribution: Cosmopoliton (Indigenous to Palaearctic).

3. Aporrectodea
caliginosa caliginosa (Savigny, 1826)

(Figure
4.81)

1826.
Enterion caliginosum Savigny, Mem.
Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. (Hist.), 5: 180.

1826.
Enterion carneum Savigny, Mem. Acad. Sci.
Inst. Fr. (Hist.), 5: 180.

1867.
Lumbricus hortensiae Kinberg, Ofvers.
K. Vetensk Acad. Forh. Stockh., 23: 98.

1867.
Lumbricus novaehollandie Kinberg,
Ofvers. K. Vetensk Acad. Forh. Stockh., 23: 99.

1871.
Lumbricus communis olivaceus Eisen, Ofvers. K. Vetensk
Acad. Forh. Stockh., 27: 964.

1887.
Lumbricus (Allolobophora) australiensis
Fletcher, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1: 946.

1900.
Helodrilus (Allolobophora) caliginosus
(in part), Michaelsen, Tierreich, 10: 482.

1952.
Allolobophora arnoldi Gates,
Breviora, no. 9: 1.

1952.
Allolobophora molita Gates, Breviora,
no. 9: 3.

1958.
Allolobophora caliginosa, Gates,
Breviora, no. 91: 2.

1972.
Allolobophora tuberculata, Gates,
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 62: 79.

1972.
Allolobophora turgida, Gates, Trans.
Am. Phil. Soc., 62: 84

1972.
Allolobophora tuberculata, Gates,
Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta., no 12: 43.

1972.
Allolobophora turgida, Gates, Bull.
Tall Timbers Res. Sta., no 12: 89.

1982.
Allolobophora caliginosa caliginosa,
Zicsi, Acta Zool. Hung., 28: 425.

1983.
Aporrectodea caliginosa caliginosa,
Easton, in Satchell, J.E. Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to Vermiculture: 476.

2012.
Aporrectodea caliginosa, Blakemore, Cosmopolitan Earthworms:
631.

  Description: Length
45-139mm, diameter 2.3-4.4mm, number of segments 120-174. Colour whitish or
greyish. Body cylindrical, hind end slightly depressed dorsoventrally.
Prostomial tongue usually closed. First dorsal pore intersegmental furrow
12/13, occasionally 10/11, rarely 9/10, 11/12, 13/14. Clitellum saddle shaped,
on segment 27-34 or 35; tubercula pubertatis at segments 30, 32, 33, median
margin concave, maximum concavity at segment 32, bipartite in origin as
indicated on immature specimens. Setae lumbricine closely paired; aa=4.34-6.15,
ab=1.31-1.59, bc=6.1-8.32, cd=0.26-0.37, dd on segment 12; aa=7.18-7.89,
ab=1.39-2.13, bc=9.66-12.27, cd=0.29-0.42, dd on segment 36; genital
tumescences incorporating setae a, b on segments 9-11, 30, 32-34, rarely on
segments 25, 26, 27, 29, 31. Male pores minute at the base of large transverse
clefts located on prominent whitish tumescences which extend laterally to c
setal lines and slightly on segments 14 and 16; spermathecal pores minute,
paired at intersegmental furrow 9/10/11, at or close to c lines. Female pores paired, tiny, on setal arc of segment 14.

Unpigmented
Septa 5/6-9/10 muscular. Typhlosole from 21-24 to 110-125 segment. Holandric;
testes and male funnels free, at segment 10 and 11, funnels large and
iridescent; seminal vesicles paired, in segment 9-12, slightly smaller in
segment 9-10 than those in segment 11-12; Spermathecae paired, in segment 10
and 11, small, confined to parietes, adiverticulate. Glands of tubercula
pubertatis, atrium and genital setae absent.

Material
examined: Chail: 467
aclitellate, 594 clitellate; Oak forest; 1183 aclitellate, 710 clitellate;
Cedrus forest; 297 aclitellate, 169 clitellate; cultivation; 566 aclitellate,
618 clitellate; orchard; altitude: 2200 m; Solan: 7 aclitellate, 5 clitellate;
mixed forest; 19  aclitellate, 28
clitellate; cultivation; altitude: 1463 m.

Type locality:
Unknown.

Distribution:
India: Himachal Pradesh: Ehlla in Chamba district; Pooh in Kinnaur district;
Manali, Kothi in Kullu district; Sissu in Lahaul and Spiti district; Chopal,
Baldein village, Kufri, Mashobra, Jatog, Jakhu Hill, Narkanda, Bhogi Nalla
Jubbal, Taradevi in Shimla district; Chail, Janerghat, Blossom, Alampur, Nagali
Village in Solan district.  

Outside India: Europe, Pakistan, Iran, Syria,
Palestine, Israel, Sinai Peninsula, Qatar, North Africa, South Africa, Algeria,
Portugal, Ecuador, Chile, Brazil, Columbia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Mexico, Hawaii,
Japan, China, New Zealand and Australia.

Physicochemical
parameters of soil: Soil type loam-sandy loam; pH-6.32-7.78;
Moisture-20.68-30.35%; OC-0.84-1.05%; N-0.048-0.054%; P-18.1-35 kg/h.58; K-145.68-190.2
kg/h.

Remarks: Tubercula pubertatis
interrupted from segment 31-33.

4.
Aporrectodea rosea rosea (Savigny, 1826)

(Figure 4.82)

1826.
Enterion roseum Savigny, Mem. Acad.
Sci. Inst. Fr. (Hist), 5: 182.

1900.
Eisenia rosea, Michaelsen, Tierreich,
10: 478.

1900.
Eisenia rosea var. macedonica,
Michaelsen, Tierrich, 10: 514.

1922.
Helodrilus (Allolobophora) prashadi,
Stephenson, Rec. Indian Mus., 24: 440.

1923.
Allolobophora (Eisenia) rosea, Stephenson,
Fauna Br. India Oligochaeta: 499.

1923.
Allolobophora (Allolobophora) prashadi,
Stephenson, Fauna Br. India Oligochaeta: 501.

1940.
Allolobophora jeholensis Kobayashi,
Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., 15: 293.

1972.
Eisenia rosea, Gates Trans. Am. Phil.
Soc., 62: 104.

1974.
Eisenia rosea, Gates, Bull. Tall
Timbers Res. Sta., no. 16: 9.

1976.
Aporrectodea rosea, Gates,
Megadrilogica, 2 (12): 4.

1982.
Allolobophora rosea rosea, Zicsi,
Acta Zool. Hung., 28: 437.

1983.
Aporrectodea rosea rosea, Easton, In
Satchell, J.E. Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to vermiculture: 477.

2012.
Aporrectodea rosea, Blakemore, Cosmopolitan Earthworms:
654.

Description:
Length 33-107 mm, diameter 2.1-3.6 mm, number of segments 121-128. Colour rosy
or greyish with orange or red clitellum. Body cylindrical, oval to almost
squarish behind clitellum, setal couples at corners. Prostomial tongue
open.  First dorsal pore at
intersegmental furrow 4/5. Clitellum saddle shaped, slightly flared ventro
latterly at segments 25-32, extending occasionally to segments 24-33; tubercula
pubertatis uninterrupted longitudinal bands on segments 29-31 lateral to b
setal line. Setae lumbricine aa=6.3-7.46, ab= 1.21-1.41, bc= 6.73-7.45,
cd=0.42-0.57, dd on segment 12, aa=8.4-10.54, ab=1.55-1.87, bc=9.21-14.73,
cd=0.48-0.70, dd on segment 36; genital tumescences incorporating setae a, b in
segment 26-32, setal couples at cd line or sometimes ab on segment 9-13. Male
pores conspicuous, minute at the base of transverse clefts located on
prominent, whitish, somewhat rounded tumescences, confined to segment 15,
extending laterally to mid bc line; Spermathecal pores minute, paired at
intersegmental furrow in 9/10/11, near the mid dorsal line. Female pores paired, tiny at segment 14.

Unpigmented
Septa 5/6-9/10 muscular. Typhlosole from 21-23 to 88-102 segments. Holandric;
testes and male funnels free, in segment 10 and 11, seminal vesicles paired, in
segments 9-12. Spermathecae paired, in segment 10 and 11, adiverticulate,
ampullae spheroidal to ovoidal, duct slender, as long as ampulla. Glands of
tubercula pubertatis, atrium and genital setae present.

Material
examined: Chail: 1
aclitellate, 13 clitellate; Oak forest; 36 aclitellate, 44 clitellate; Cedrus
forest; 12 aclitellate, 26 clitellate; cultivation; 204 aclitellate, 214
clitellate; orchard; altitude: 2200 m; Solan: 578 aclitellate, 612 clitellate;
mixed forest; 19 aclitellate, 19 clitellate; Pine forest; 116 aclitellate, 129
clitellate; cultivation; 1 aclitellate, 1 clitellate; orchard; altitude: 1463
m.  

Type locality:
Paris, France.

Distribution:
Himachal Pradesh: Kharamukh, Sundla, Lakkar Mandi, Dalhousie, Khajjiar,
Bhanjraroo, Kalatop in Chamba district; Mcleodganj in Kangra district; Pooh in
Kinnaur district; Manali, Kullu, Kothi, Rahla Falls in Kullu district; Kolang,
Jahlman, Tholang, Ghoushal, Shansha, Mooring, Trilokinath, Sissu Yangling,
Keylong in Lahul and Spitti; Barot, Baria village in Mandi district; Chopal,
Kufri, Mashobra, Jakhu Hill, Shimla, Dhartoo Khari, Mashnu, Sanaba forest
Nursery, Ghanathatti, Gojta Nalla Kotkhai in Shimla district; Habban, Kufar,
Haripurdhar in Sirmour district; Jabali, Chail, Nagali village, Jhajha,
Dagshai, Dharampur, Kasauli, Happy Valley 
in Solan district.

Outside
Himachal Pradesh: Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Sikkim, Tamil
Nadu.  

Outside
India: Pakistan, Afghanistan, France,
Western Palaearctic, Nearctic, West Siberia, Europe, Mediterranean, Canaries, America,
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, North
Africa and South Africa, India, Japan Australasia, Tasmania, New Zealand.

Physicochemical
parameters of soil: Soil type loam-sandy loam; pH-6.32-7.78;
Moisture-20.68-30.35%; OC-0.84-1.05%; N-0.048-0.054%; P-18.1-35.58 kg/h;
K-145.68-190.2 kg/h.

Remarks: Aporrectodea
rosea rosea
was previously included in Eisenia but was officially transferred to the
genus Aporrectodea by Gates (1976). Moreover,
the lack of the distinctive odour of Eisenia
fetida can be used to recognize and differentiate these two species. 

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