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Coconut milk comes from the white flesh of mature
brown coconuts – Cocosnucifera L., which
are the fruit of the coconut tree in the palm family – Arecaceae. Coconuts are classified as a fruit and frequently
confused for being a nut; the coconut is actually a one seeded drupe (Onsard,
et al. 2006). According to the second International Industry Conference and
Exhibition of 2008, coconuts are abundant in Indonesia, Philippines and India –
the major producers and account for about 75% of world coconut production. Coconuts
are categorized as fruit, however, it is oftentimes disconcerted of being a nut
where it is actually a one-seeded drupe.


Coconut milk comes from the extracted fluid of a
grated coconut kernel. It can be obtained manually – by hand, or mechanically –
by a pressing machine, with or without water added (Narataruksa, et al. 2010).
Among its nutrients include lipids, proteins, sugars and many other minor
compounds. Due to its rich nutrient content, coconut milk is consumed as a
substitute for cow’s milk that has equal amounts of proteins, lipids and other
compounds. Although, a cow’s milk has equal amounts of oils and proteins, a
coconut milk contains oils ten times more than its protein content (Hagenmaier,
et al. 1974). Nevertheless, coconut milk’s importance as a raw material has
increased significantly not only for home cooking but as well as in the food
processing industries. Based on a study of new usage of coconut milk products,
25% of the world’s utilization of coconut is through coconut milk consumption (Gwee,
1988). Coconut milk also plays a major role in the food industry. Coconut milk
is an essential ingredient in the making of various food products like curry,
coconut jam spread deserts, coconut syrup, coconut cheese, bakery products and
beverages (Gwee, 1988; Gonzalez, et al. 1990). Aside from this, coconut milk is
also a good substitute for milk in some desserts like chocolate and other
confectionaries, with added flavor of coconut milk which gives exotic taste
(Muda, 2002).

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In character, coconut milk naturally came from the
extracted endosperm of mature coconut which contains about 54% moisture, 35%
fat and 11% non-solid fat (Saikhwan, et al. 2015). Its natural oil-in-water
emulsion is innately stabilized by proteins and phospholipids present in the
coconut. Despite of this unique characteristics, coconut milk is still not
stable similar to all other emulsions (Raghavendra & Raghavarao, 2010).
With that, it is prone to phase separation within 5 to 10 hours of manufacture.
Within the time range mentioned, the coconut milk will start to separate into
cream and serum layers or known as coconut cream and coconut skim milk,
respectively. However, the separated milk produced by coconut milk can still be
homogenized by shaking. Sometimes, coconut milk create 3 to 4 phases during
separation. These are serum layer, grey precipitate layer, cream layer and oil
layer (Chambal, et al 2012).


Preparation and the control of emulsions such as milk,
carbonated soft drinks (Tan, 2004), ice cream (Goff, 1997), and sauces and
dressings (Sikora, et al. 2008) is one of the key functional roles of food
hydrocolloids. Majority of hydrocolloids act as stabilizers – stabilizing agent
of oil-in-water emulsions, but only few can act as emulsifiers – emulsifying
agent. The latter’s functionality requires significant surface activity at the
oil-in-water interface, and the ability to assist the formation and
stabilization of fine droplets during and after emulsification (Dickinson,
2003; Dickinson 2004). In this study, the presence of hydrocolloids from Corchorus olitorius (saluyot) leaves
will be used to emulsify and stabilize the homogeneity of coconut milk. Halliday
(2008) evaluated the rheological properties of hydrocolloids and attained
results showing 0.5% of gel-like quality of hydrocolloid concentration from Corchorus olitorius (saluyot) obtained
by modified ammonium sulfate fractionation. A different study showed 6.0% (w/w)
hydrocolloid concentration (Yamazakai, et al. 2008). Hydrocolloids
in Corchorus olitorius (saluyot)
leaves has better viscosity than other food hydrocolloids like guar gum and
locust bean gum and has greater potential use in the food industry (Halliday,


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