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Civil engineering is one of the branches of engineering. It is a professional planning and constructing of buildings, roads, bridges, and hospitals. With the help of planners and architectures, civil engineers made the life general public very easy.

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History and background:

The history of civil engineering can be depicted from the time when the first house and road was constructed. The commencement of civil engineering can be seen during 4000 and 2000 BC at ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt when human build shelters for their survival. The incredible pyramids of Egypt (2700-2500 BC) are the momentous construction of its time. Imhotep who was a wonderful engineer constructed the stepped pyramid which is an extraordinary contribution to the world of engineering. Ancient historical civil engineering construction can be seen in Ancient Greece like Parthenon by Iktinos (447-438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (C.312 BC), The Great Wall of China (220 BC) which is one of the great wonders of the world was constructed by the General M’eng T’ien. During 1 AD, a book called Vitruvius’ De Architectura was published in Rome which was about engineering education at the ancient time. At the Ancient and Medieval time, the design and construction were carried out by artisan and manual labor because they did not have access to machinery. In the 18th century for the first time, the term civil engineering was used in order to differentiate from military engineering that made war machines. The National School of Bridges and Highways, France, was the first engineering school which was opened in 1747. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and he constructed the Eddy Stone Lighthouse. Norwich University founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge it was the first private college of civil engineering in the United States.

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