Site Loader

DIGITAL ASSIGNMENT-1

NAME: SWATHI.V

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

REG NO: 16BBA0009

 

EVOLUTION
OF INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM:

First three
banks merged in 1921 to form the imperial bank of India and after India’s
independence the bank became the state bank of India.

 There was establishment of banks in between
1906-1911 inspired by swadeshi movement. And this swadeshi movement attracted
business mans and political people to found banks for the Indians. After that
many number of banks was established and then they have fully running at
present also such as corporation bank, Indian bank, bank of Baroda, Canada bank
and central bank of India.

 

Evolution
of Indian financial system was characterised by:

     
There was of absence of organised
capital market.

     
There was a rare case of public issues
of capital for expansion and modernisation.

     
And there are a few financial
institutions and players in the market.

     
The companies have strict conditions for
getting loan to start their own business.

 

Indian financial
system has faced many stages to attain universal banking system in economy. Evolution
Indian financial system development is divided into three phases.

     
The first phase on pre-1951 period.

     
The second phase is from 1951 to 1990
period and

     
The third phase on Post-1990 period.

 

FIRST
PHASE ON PRE-1951 PERIOD:

There was
traditional economy of financial organisation before 1951 of Indian financial
system as formulated by R.L. Bennett. There is principals of pre-1951 financial
system were described by L.C. Gupta. The principal of pre-independence
industrial financing organization have certain characters of industrial
entrepreneurship.

                                                As
a result from this, there was a many restriction for industries to get outside
saving. Such a financial system was clearly shown that there was incapable to
sustaining a high rate of industrial growth, particularly growth of new and
innovating/creative business.

     
Control of money lenders in that period

     
No regulatory bodies in country

     
No laws –total private sectors

     
Hardly any industrialization in the
economy

     
Banks- traditional lenders for trade and
that too short term

     
Main concentration on traditional
agricultural and related activities

     
Absence of intermediatary institution in
long term financing of industrial activity

 

 

SECOND
PHASE FROM 1951-1990

 

During period of
1951-1990 more supply of finance and credit for the entrepreneurs and industry
to strengthen economic growth. In this period Indian financial system have a
certain responsibility to have planned economic development in economy. There
was a broad economic policy and social aims of the state to secure economic
growth with rules and regulations of the Indian constitution, under the
principles of State policies, the scheme of planned economic development was
initiated in 1951.

 

The second phase
was country has planned economy. In the period of planned economy development
the economy have both public and private sector as mixed economy. And the
implication of financial system is laid down by government’s economic policy. For
the economic development the planning has distribution of resources by the
financial system with new five year plans. In this planning process government
have implemented and aimed certain patterns for distribution of finance and
credits to develop the growth of the economy.

 

The planned
economic development is divided into four groups:

     
Public ownership of financial
institutions

     
Fortification of the institutional
structure

     
Protection of investors

     
Participation of financial institutions
in corporate management

 

1951-1990

 Moneylenders ruled till 1951. No banks are
running properly at that time. Industries depended on their own money. 1951
onwards the five year plan was commenced.

 

 

Ø  Public ownership of financial
institutions:

Evolution of financial system of India has a
progressive transfer of private ownership to public control. The control of
public has certain measures of nationalization for creation of new institution
with the control of public sector.

     
Nationalization:

·        
RBI-1948

·        
SBI-1956 take-over of imperial bank of
India

·        
LIC-1956 mergers of over 245 life
insurance companies

·        
Banks-1969-14 major banks under the
control of government of India

·        
Banks- 1980-6 more banks

·        
Insurances-1972 GIC (General insurance
companies)

 

Ø  DEVELOPMENTAL BANKS ALSO FORMED IN
THIS PERIOD:

·        
Industrial Finance Corporation of India
(IFCI) in1948 was the introduced in this period for the development of banking system
in India. The full power for these institutions was given in the year of 1951.
This institution gives medium and the long term credit for the industrial
enterprises.

·        
National industrial development (NIDC) was
started in 1954 to provide finance and credit for entrepreneurship and
financing agency for modern cotton and jute industry for the development of
industry in economy.

·        
In 1955 there was Industrial Credit and Investment
Corporation of India (ICICI) for development of economy. ICICI channelizing of
foreign currency loan from World Bank to private sector.

·        
Refinance Corporation of Industry was
started in 1958 provide finance to the banks in term of loan granted by them to
small and medium enterprises.

·        
Industrial Developmental Bank of India
was took place in India in 1964

THRID
PHASE ON POST 1990s:

In
this phase new economic policy are formulated. The main features in economic
reforms in this phase are,

     
Privatization

     
Globalization

     
Liberalization

 

Privatization:

Privatization
means more number of industries is setup by private sector and certain public
sector industries are sold to private sector is called privatization in
economic reforms.

·        
Sales of public sector securities to
private sectors.

·        
Disinvestment of public sector and less
control of public sectors.

·        
Number of industries of public sectors
was reduced in the economy and there was increase in industries in private
sector.

·        
There was a maximum investment in
private.

 

Globalization:

Globalization
means linking with the world. Here globalization means Indian economy should
link with whole world such as free trade policy and capital and free movement of
person across the borders.

·        
Increase in Foreign investments

·        
A tariff was reduced for imports and
exports goods and commodities.

·        
Long term during policy was introduced
in this phase.

 

Liberalization:

Liberalization
means free in form to direct and physical controls imposed by government.

Before post 90’s
there was restriction for big investments, licensing policy, foreign exchange
control etc., under government side. After the liberalization there was control
on corruptions, political interference, and etc.

·        
 First
Licence system was introduced in this period by liberal policy since 1991.
There are certain industry must have their licence before setting up their
industry such industries are liquor, cigarette, defence equipments, dangerous
chemical, drug, industrial explosive.

·        
The industry which has assets more than
100 crore they are need not get approval from government.

·        
No barriers for import technology and there
was an abolition of the limit of production expansion and investment for small
scale industry.

 

 

DEVELOPMENT
OF INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM 1900-2017:

 

     
In 1990’s Indian economy has undergoing
economic reforms which includes financial reforms.

     
And Indian banking system has become
more market oriented in 1991.

     
Number of stock exchange was increased
from 9 to 22 in years 1981-1991 and there was a rapid expansion of stock
exchange activities.

     
The number of listed companies is
increased from 2265 to 6229 in years 1980-1991 and market capitalization from 68
billion in 1980 to 1103 billion in 1991and 11926 billion in 2000.

     
In 1991 liberalization have been taken
on the cash reserve ratio and statutory liquidity ratio and before 1991 before
CRR is more than 25% and SLR IS 40% and at 2006-7 the CRR came down to 6% and
SLR is 25% and at present CRR is 4% and SLR is 19.5 %.

     
The number of foreign banks and private
banks operation was increased from 21 and 23 in 1991 to 33 and 30 in 2004.

 

RECENT
DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM,

     
Withdrawal of legal tender status for
?500 and ?1000 notes.

·        
To reduce the a corruption and black
money circulation in the economy the government decided to stop the circulation
of 500 and 1000 notes into the economy. And instead of those notes the
financial system introduced new currency for legal transaction.

     
Passages of goods and service tax bill.

·        
The government passed the tax on goods
and service on august 2016. The special additional duty on custom GST would
lead to a uniform consumption –based tax structure across the all goods and
service.

     
Thrust towards digitisation on
government payments.

·        
After demonetisation in India, there is
change toward payment every payment is made in digital/electronic way. To make
digital India.

 

 
PERIODS

 
POLICY MEASURES FOR DEVELOPMENT

 
1990-1991

1.     
New import and
export policy was formulated
2.     
Services
exports were encouraged
3.     
Replenishment
rates were modified to encourage higher value added product.

 
1992-1993

1.     
EXIM policy
for five year 1992-1997 was implemented
2.     
Since 1992
imports were regulated through a limited negative list

 
1994-1995

1.     
Under the duty
exemption scheme and the export promotion of capital goods scheme third party
export were given benefits

 
1995-1996

1.     
Quantitative
restrictions were phase out  in the
form of licensing and other discretionary controls
2.     
Control on
imports were liberalised with only small list of items
      in negative list
 

 
1997-1998

 
1.     
EXIM policy
1997-2002 constituted

 
1998-1999

1.     
Exports under
all exports promotion schemes were exempted from special additional duty
2.     
Simplification
of bond-furnishing producers  for
exporter
3.     
Tax holiday
for EOU/EPZ for 10 years

 
1999-2000

1.     
Free trade
zone replaced export processing zone
2.     
green card for
exporters for exporting 50% for their production
3.     
duty free
imports of consumables  up to certain
limits for gems and jewellery, handicrafts and leather sector

 
2001-2002

 
1.     
quantitative
restrictions removed from 714 tariff fines
2.     
setting up
special economic zone

 
2002-2003

 
1.     
agricultural
exports promoted

 
2008-2009

1.     
continued on
special economic zone
2.     
export duty on
iron ore fines were eliminated

 
2010-2011

1.     
27 markets
added under the focus market scheme(FMS) with incentive of duty credit scrip
at 3% of export
2.     
Zero duty
export promotion capital goods scheme and status holder incentive scrip
scheme are introduced

 

 

 

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Erica!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out