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are exogenous substances which produce a measurable response in a biological
system. Drugs are targeted at protein structures in order to produce a
pharmacological effect. Enzymes are protein structures which can alter the rate
of biological reaction, thereby acting as catalysis and are unused at the end
of the reaction, this allows the reaction to occur at a respectable rate. An
enzyme target in drug action is when a drug is targeted specifically to an
enzyme or to a receptor which is linked to an enzyme, in order to activate or
inhibit the enzymes function. Enzymes can be the target of drugs, in order to
enhance a drugs therapeutics effect, these are known as inhibitors, these may
compete with the substrate for the enzyme active site known as competitive
inhibitors or may attach to enzyme substituent e.g Fe2+ group in p450
cytochrome enzymes, these are known as non-competitive inhibitors. Drugs may
also be targeted to aid the breakdown and elimination of the drugs known as
inducers. Both the inhibitor and inducer effect occurs when a drug is targeted
at p450 cytochrome enzyme which is found in the liver. Drugs encounter this
enzyme when undergoing first pass Metabolism (Rang
and Dale Pharmacology, 2007). A drug can also have an
inhibitory effect on enzymes, this is the case in the anti-cancer drug,
Tyrosine Kinases Inhibitor which inhibits the enzyme tyrosine kinases,
preventing the phosphorylation of tyrosine residue substrates, this affects
cell proliferation. This effect may be exhibited when the drug competes for ATP
binding site on the section of tyrosine kinases, thus inhibiting ATP. This
prevents signal which induces cell growth from being produced (Hartmann
JT, 2009)..

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