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is one of the most vital elements of human civilization. From the prehistoric
human civilization to the modern world, energy consumption is increasing day by
day 1. The increasing trend of energy has been accelerated by globalization
and the industrial revolution. Due to this development, some major
environmental problems are created like climate change, energy crisis, global
warming. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report
concluded that “It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause
of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.”2

past 15 years have seen an unprecedented change in the consumption of energy
resources. Global primary energy consumption is increased at an alarming rate
during the last three decades. Now in the 21st century, the energy
consumption of the current world’s electric energy is around 12-13 TW 3. For
instance, Electricity generation consumption raises from around 4000/ million
tons of oil equivalent in 1971 to 8000/ millions tons of oil equivalent with
expected demand growth by 37% 4 5.

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       Fig. 1. World Primary Energy
Consumption from 1985-2015   6

In the present
century, global energy system depends mainly on fossil fuel (coal, oil, natural
gas) as a primary source. It takes many years to produce fossil fuel and this
cannot be recycled and therefore, these sources are depleting day by day. Using
fossil fuel as an energy source is not a healthy way because the burning of
fossil fuel produces 21.3 billion tons of CO2 every year. The environment
can absorb approximately half of that amount. As a result, 10.65 billion tons
of CO2 are increasing per year 7. The CO2 is a
greenhouse gas that causes global warming. Fossil fuels are also responsible
for air pollutants like NO2, SO2, CO, and hydrocarbons.

For substituting the fossil fuel
dependent power plants nuclear energy sources are the effective way to produce
a large amount of energy. But it needs high technological system and manpower.
Nuclear plant wastes are highly radiative and hazardous to health. For the sake
of our environment and existence of living being, we have to find the
alternative sources of energy. Renewable energy sources can be a promising way
for producing electric energy without hampering the environment ecosystem. The
renewable energy sources can be wind, solar, hydropower and biomass energy
system. Among them, some are limited in areas such as wind and hydropower
energy. Therefore, the solar system can be a very efficient way for energy production
as sunlight reaches the whole part of the world. The earth receives more solar
energy in 1 hour that is the energy used in 1 year globally, considering the
solar constant 1.7 x 105 TW at the top of the earth’s atmosphere. 4 However
the solar energy incidence, around 1 kW/m2, is quite dilute and requires a vast
area of energy converters to meet the world’s energy consumption.


   Figure 2: World energy consumption
in 2016   6

        At present, Bangladesh is
a developing country and it has the probability to progress which directs us
towards the increasing demand for energy. Nowadays, Bangladesh is facing a severe
energy crisis.  In Bangladesh, many
people living in villages having lack of access to a continuous supply of
electricity. Among them, about 40% are living below poverty line. On the other
hand, climate change puts addition threats to development 8. The main source
of energy now in Bangladesh is natural gas. About 24% of total energy comes
from natural gas. Due to rapid use of natural gas, it is likely to be depleted
by the year 2020 9.

developed countries are trying to get rid of this problem of fossil fuel energy
sources. Many countries are substituting their energy production system of
fossil fuel by renewable energy production system. The solar cell or
photovoltaic cell is playing an important role in world’s energy demand which
is a great source of clean energy. Solar cells can convert into solar energy to
electrical energy without emitting CO2. Its energy production is
also unlimited and free of charge. According
to International Energy Agency (IEA,) solar photovoltaic and concentrated solar
energy would contribute about 16% and 11% by respectively by 2050 of the
worldwide electricity consumption and solar would be the world’s largest source
of electricity. 10

Bangladesh is a developing country which is trying to produce more electricity
for social and economic development. For producing more electricity solar power
system can be very useful for this country. Bangladesh lies between 20034′
and 26038′ North Latitude and 88001′ and 92041′
East Longitude with a total landmass of 1,47,570 square kilometers (56,977 Sq.
miles). Because of the cross-sectional area and the total surface area of the
earth differ by a factor of 4, the average flux incident on the earth is one
fourth the solar constant, or 0.340 kW/m2. Of the atmosphere incoming, 49% is
absorbed and irradiated by the atmosphere. The solar constant (1.360 kW/m2) is
the rate at which solar energy is received per unit area of the earth’s
atmosphere. In Bangladesh, the average is 0.193 kW/m211.
Bangladesh receives an average daily solar radiation of 4-6.5 kWh/m2.The maximum
amount of solar radiation received in March-April and minimum in November-December-January
in the following figure1 12.



 Figure 3: Monthly average solar
radiation profile in Bangladesh 13


there are many types of solar cell available in the market to generate
electricity. The most common types are crystalline, thin film, dye-sensitized,
quantum dot and perovskite solar cells etc. But crystalline silicon
photovoltaic (PV) cells are used in the largest quantity of all types of solar
cells on the market, representing about 90% of the world total PV cell
production in 2008 14.

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