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enophobia, a part of the answer: Immigrants often become a target of racism due to their different way of acting and speaking. Due to the popularity in today’s day and age of stereotypes concerning races and ethnocentrism racism has become a very big phenomena that has threatened the position of immigrant’s mental, physical and emotional peace. (An Encyclopedia, Immigration in America Today, 2006) The racial basis on which the U.S immigration is based is apparent due to its very open preferences towards Western Europe. This was also very obvious by the racial undertones present in targeted deportation and biased application considerations. (An Encyclopedia, Immigration in America Today, 2006.)  There was a time known as 1965, a time during which immigrants particularly faced a lot of issues. These issues led them to not be able to peacefully settle but were made forcefully to do so. For example African-Americans, were forcefully recruited so they could be used as ‘the help.’ One would assume if you were being so free with your grants of any form of citizenship you might as well be welcomed there nicely rather than with brutal violence, but the latter was clearly the norm.( One would view the relationship between Americans and the English as a rather peaceful one with the former being welcoming to the immigrants of the latter sort, but up to the American Civil war, even they were looked upon with a hostile and suspicious eye. This was one of the reasons Thomas Jefferson won the election, due to the anti-English sentiment he shared with the people of the time. ( The Economic Needs side of the argument: It is a renowned fact that half of the U.S economy is fueled by immigrants. This is not the only thing that the immigrants are capable of in the U.S, they are also known to be a productive part of the skilled and unskilled labor that the U.S works with. This clearly shows that immigration is an important part of the economic growth of the United States of America. ( There are about 1500 economists who have told Trump repeatedly that immigrants are good resources for their country. There are three ways U.S’s economy is boosted by the presence of immigration over there: ? Human Capital: “Perhaps even more important than the contribution to labor supply is the infusion by high-skilled immigration of human capital that has boosted the nation’s capacity for innovation and technological change,” reported the National Academy of Sciences. (  Then again, no particular figure in terms of dollars has been estimated for this particular benefit. Talking about this in terms of immigrants who come to study in any university in America, to get their degree or PhD in science or engineering, Keith Maskus from the University of Colorado says are possible 62 out of a 100 possible future patent applicants. ( ? The growth of the labor force: After a period of time it has been analyzed and concluded that immigration is good for the Gross Domestic Product of a country. (  In the United States in particular, it has prevented stagnation of economic growth as the immigrants travel there to acquire the countless job opportunities presented by the nation itself. The National Academy of Sciences has also concluded that the aging and shrinking workload of the U.S is better replaced by immigrants rather than facing shrinkage like it had in Japan which has been known to be quite unwelcoming towards immigrants.    ( ? The Entrepreneurs and their benefits: Innovation has been known to be quite the activity that helps sustain economy in the long run. Statistics taken from The National Foundation for American Policy study show that at least half of 80 start-up companies, which could amount up to a billion dollars are known to have an immigrant founder or at the very least an immigrant co-founder. (  For example, The CEO of Flagship Ventures, Noubar Afeyan, was the founder or co-founder 38 companies in the United States of America. Another example is the Indian born founder of AppDynamics, Jyoti Bansal, An owner of a company whose value exceeds 1.9 billion dollars. ( The evidence above clearly shows as to why the claim is centered between Xenophobia and Economic needs both being the stone based foundation for the U.S immigration policy. Both have a major role due to innovation and the lack of innovation that have tunneled around and down to the fact that the U.S foreign policy is based on both xenophobia and economic needs of the country itself. The Historical Context: For Xenophobia: There are two big examples that support the theory of Xenophobia as the backbone of the U.S immigrants. One from the past dating back to 1882 and one from the present, going as far as 2017. Starting with the event dating back to the1882, significantly refers to the Chinese Seclusion Act which was a United States Federal Law. The Act stated that no Chinese laborers would be allowed immigration into the U.S and one of the reasons it was so significant was because it was the first law that prevented a specific ethnic group from migrating into the U.S. (Norton, Henry K, 1924, The Story of California From the Earliest Days to the Present, A. C. McClurg & Co. pp. 283–296. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09.)   The reason behind this act was the animosity that was slowly seeping into the air after the Chinese started settling in the enclaves and taking over low wage jobs. Before this, during the California Gold Rush the Chinese were tolerated but in a post-civil war America where the economy had severely weakened the Chinese were less than welcome. Soon the Chinese were being blamed for depressed wages. After their ban was passed it was later raised due to the Chinese providing cheap labor and not using much of the government resources making this a better deal for the U.S. This particularly shows how Xenophobia and Economic needs drive the U.S immigration policy. (Norton, Henry K, 1924, The Story of California From the Earliest Days to the Present, A. C. McClurg & Co. pp. 283–296. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09.)   The second event that took place in 2017 that supports the theory of Xenophobia as the driving force of the U.S immigration policy. In 2017 the U.S Supreme Court ruled in the favor of Trump’s ban of Muslim’s from six majority Muslim countries. Although this might have come as a huge blow to the anti-discrimination advocates the ban was still approved and people from North Korea, Libya, Somalia, Iran, Syria, Yemen, Chad and Venezuela were not granted Visas to enter the country. (Mcarthy, Tom, Trump Travel Ban, The U.S attorney, Jeff Sessions, has called this particular ruling as something that ‘Is for the safety of the American people.’ (Mcarthy, Tom, Trump Travel Ban, The Muslim ban, according to Trump was necessary due to the influence of stereotype that was mentioned earlier which President Trump has also given way to as ‘Muslims being terrorists.’ This is the best example of Xenophobia acting as a driving force for the U.S immigration policy in the present day. For Economic Needs: Earlier on in the paper, it was discussed that the U.S foreign policy was motivated by economic needs and xenophobia. The former was used to outline how this motivates the U.S government to urge immigrants to settle into the country but what it did not mention was how it also helped illegal immigrants to settle in the country as well. (Duke, Elaine, “Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)”, United States Department of Homeland Security, 2017)  The DACA policy is an U.S immigration policy that allows individuals who had entered the country on unfair basis to live on a renewable two year lease that entails them being employed during these two years as well. A work permit is provided with the two year lease as well. (Duke, Elaine, “Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)”, United States Department of Homeland Security, 2017)  This shows that the immigration policy was also motivated by the brute force of economic needs of America for cheap labor that these illegal immigrants provided thus helping them increase and improve their economic structure and GDP. Conclusion: Going back to the questions the paper had started with, it is safe to say that xenophobia was the reason behind the strategy of the U.S Immigration policy before Trump’s rule, taking the Chinese ban act of 1882 into account and comparing it to the xenophobic Muslim ban that has been carried out by Trump since 2017. Looking at the economic needs, the past and present of the U.S immigration policy not only caters to Xenophobia but the economic needs of their country as well, as DACA has been in effect for a long time to provide cheap labor. Another perfect example of xenophobia and economic needs acting together proves to be under the Chinese Act of 1882 in which the immigration ban for the Chinese was imposed because of xenophobia but later lifted for economic needs. It is safe to say that to this day the U.S foreign policy is dictated by both xenophobia and economic needs of the 

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