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Estimation of top pavement layer using non-destructive testing
devices is critical in assessing structural capacity of pavement. Destructive
testing such as coring is often used to measure pavement thickness; however, it
involves using colossal equipment, a water supply, and materials. Pavement
thickness estimation by non-destructive testing methods saves employment, material
supplies, and time, resulting in substantial economical resource savings 1.
The difficulty in predicting the quality of concrete pavement when its
construction is favored by visual inspection or by comprehending the quality of
raw materials used leads to taking cores from constructed concrete pavement for
checking the excellency of the pavement been built. Therefore, destructive
tests provide vibrant idea about the quality of construction in terms of
strength whereas non-destructive test is quick, easy to use at site and fairly
less expensive which can yield impressive results when used appropriately
without damaging the structure 2.

testing (NDT) methods are used to evaluate the condition of structures through
performing indirect assessment of concrete properties. The benefits of using
NDT include reduced structural damage during testing, reduced amount of time
while conducting NDT methods, relative easiness of the test and possible
measurements of structures where cores cannot be drilled 3, 4, 5. NDT methods
have also been recommended for the assessment of the damage and for the survey
of precise situation of concrete structures and road pavements 5, 6.   The two most popular methods of NDT used for
in situ applications are the Rebound Hammer (RH) and the Ultra-Sonic Pulse
Velocity (UPV) techniques. RH test is a speedy process used in determination of
concrete features based on its surface hardness 7. Schmidt Rebound Hammer is
used for measuring surface toughness of concrete. UPV method is established
based on the measurements of the velocity of an ultrasonic pulse which is
produced by an electro-acoustical transducer through concrete. The structure of
concrete with its density and existence of any cracks or flaws can be estimated
through evaluating UPV results 8.

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Advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) methods have developed
during the last 10 years which include radar, ultrasonic and impact-echo through
these innovative techniques assessment of existing structures can be assessed 9,
10, 11. Ultrasonic test based on longitudinal wave pulse velocity
determination is common for nondestructive testing of concrete because of its
simplicity and cost effectiveness 12. The work of some researchers studied on
the destructive and non-destructive test is summarized in Table 1.

The main objective of this paper is
to correlate strengths of concrete pavement obtained from destructive and non-
destructive testing. In the study data from numerous articles was collected,
and finding descriptive statistics (mean, variance, standard deviation,
minimum, and maximum) was carried out. A relationship between (compressive
strength and time, tensile strength and time, compressive strength and tensile
strength, pulse velocity and time, compressive strength and pulse velocity,
tensile strength and pulse velocity, elastic modulus and pulse velocity) was



2. Objectives

The overall objective was to quantify changes in strengths of
concrete pavement through destructive and non-destructive testing using
regression analysis. The specific objectives are as follows:

(i) Collection of data to establish the effect of destructive and
non-destructive test on the strength of concrete pavement.

(ii) Quantify some statistical measure such as standard deviation,
mean , coefficient of variance ,variance, minimum, maximum, range.

(iii) Investigate relationship between (tensile strength
&compressive strength, tensile strength & time, compressive strength
& time, compressive strength & pulse velocity, tensile strength &
pulse velocity, elastic modulus & pulse velocity, pulse velocity &

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