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ethnicism actually connects commodified narcissism and the ideology of authentic community;
even more, it appears that this type of narcissism uses the notion of ideal
ethnic community for a making of the new economic and political order that
excludes the Others. Ethnicism, by emphasising ethnic identity and the
sacredness of origin, serves as the terrain for the ideological naturalization:
the ethnic component was supposed to be the nature that resisted the supraethnic temptation and the
historical revitalization. The ethnicist attitude threatens to
reduce the multiplicity of political, intellectual, economic
and cultural phenomena to an easy and
cheerful detection of sense, or “destiny”
– this is, of course, similar to “old” nationalism but, as we shall see, the
role of state and democracy is quite different. In point of fact, ethnicity is not the revealed natural immediacy, but
the product of various social determinations. For example, the fragile,
war-like Hutu-Tutsi distinction in Rwanda was the mix of class and ethnical
moments, and professional occupations, but the government of German and Belgian
colonial administrations have formed a strong distinction and stratification
striated by ethnical criteria. Besides, ethnicities are often produced in the
context of migration reacting to the processes of dislocation and
industrialization. It is no accident that the ethnic transformation in the
ideology of the Chinese ruling class became most explicit with the opening up
of the Chinese economy to world markets in 1978 and “the suppression of the
movement for political reform in 1989”, which was followed by an intensive “patriotic
education campaign” (Davidson, 2016: 240). In this sense, the ethnicity
involves numerous socio-economic determinations in the context of the uneven
development in capitalism (for these selected examples concerning the Hutu-Tutsi
relation see Davidson, ibid.: 8, Zhao 1998, Li 2008).

neoliberalized capitalism determines the relations between nationalism and
ethnicism. As far as the theory of nationalism is concerned, it is remarkable
that recent republican and neorepublican theoreticians have made a huge effort
to make a strong distinction between nationalism and ethnicism. Our choice is
Dominique Schnapper (1994), who has developed a very subtle theory pointing out
the far-reaching difference between the two types of the organization of collectivity.
In short: nation is constructed politically, that is, nation is a mediated
community by citizenship, it is the community of citizens who are from time to
time ready to sacrifice their life for the community. With the nation, and
probably “national-humanism”,1

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1 This term was
articulated especially by Derrida (1992).

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