 EXPIREMENT
NO # 2

Determination of velocity & discharge using floats

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APPARATUS:

1)
Tape Measure

2)
Stop-Watch (cell phones often have a timer)

3)
Meter
stick TO Measure Depth (Tape Measures are more Difficult to use)

4)
Buoyant objects such as orange

THEORY:

If a Flow Meter is not Available or Rough Estimate is enough so we can use
the float to measure the flow. The float can be any light object such as pine
cone or an orange or partially filled plastic water bottle.

The basic idea is to Measure the time that it takes a floating object to
travel a specified distance downstream. We measure the flow of stream. Flow is
important because define the shape, size and direction of the stream.

Measure the distance up to 60 feet along the bank string the rope at the
both ends.

1.
Using the total stream calculate the cross
sectional area of the stream at the both end. To find the total stream width
and the average depth.

Total Width (feet)* Average depth (feet) = area in feet.

2.
Throw The Float From Upstream Direction. Get a
stop watch to record the time it takes to reach the downstream. If the float
moves too fast so record the data 75 or 100 instead of 60 feet. Repeat this
process two more times for a total of three measurements.

3.
Now in this step we will calculate the velocity the
distance covered by float divided by the average amount of time it took to
covered the distance.  If the distance is
60 feet and the time taken by orange 100 seconds so get the velocity is 0.6
feet/sec.

60 feet/100sec=0.6sec.

4.
Calculate the mid-depth velocity by multiplying
the surface velocity by 0.85.

0.6*0.85=0.51ft/sec.

5.  Now calculate the discharge in cubic feet per
second (cfs) & multiplying the

Velocity (ft/sec) by the
cross-sectional area (ft) of the stream.

0.43ft/sec*10.73ft=4.62cfs. 