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Explanation is a central notion in human reasoning and a traditional
topic in the philosophy of science (1). The classic
investigation into “the logic of explanation,” (Hempel and Oppenheim, 1948) was
the first publication and from that time philosophers of science have seriously
been searching an analysis of the nature of explanation. causation (Woodward,
2003), and mechanism (Machamer et al., 2000) are only two examples that such
philosophers made upon in their way trying to describe necessary and sufficient
conditions under which a theory explains some proposition (2). As regard to the
ubiquity of explanation in human cognition and action, it is both astonished
that this principal converts to be so analytically impenetrable and critical
that philosophers continue to strive for an understanding of this notion. humans
can explain well but at the same time badly describe what they are doing which
known as the gap between doing and describing (3). An associated project,
philosophers are trying to achieve today is their effort to analyze the strength
of an explanation which means the degree of explanatory power that a
particular explanans has over its explanandum to distinguish the conditions
under which hypotheses are categorized to strong  explanations or weak explanations of
some proposition, and it would also justify the meaning of comparative
explanatory judgments such as “hypothesis

A has a better explanation of this fact than does hypothesis
B”. Humans often make judgments of explanatory power and then use these
judgments to develop preferences for hypotheses, or even to prove the truth of some
hypotheses. So, individual and social human reasoning is depending on the judgments
of explanatory power. To sum up, better understanding of explanatory power is
necessary for evaluation of human reasoning (2).

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An analysis of explanation is required before trying to find an
analysis of explanatory power. This assumption is strengthened by the fact that
in order to analyze the strength of something, one must have some clarity about
what that thing is although the determinants of judgments of explanatory power
remain unclearvv. According
to several philosophers, the power of an explanation is rely on the amount of
statistical information that an explanans provides
about an explanandum with given population. The explanatory
power is a complicated and affected by considerations of prior credibility of a
(causal) hypothesis, generalizability and statistical relevance. These factors
also figure prominently in (normative) philosophical theories of explanation. The
multiple factors in explanatory judgment explains why it has been difficult to end
with a theory of abductive inference that is both normatively compelling and descriptively
accurate. So, it is difficult to organize diverse determinants of explanatory
judgment into a single unifying framework (4).



Explanatory power is only fit in contexts in which two explanations
are compared with respect to their explanatory qualities. Usually proportion of explanatory power increase in relation

competing explanations. The explanations are considered as
alternatives to each other, It is essential to be sure that the two
explanations are not completely alternatives to each other and the

more powerful explanation is, the better explanation. Competition
is not the only way in which explanations may be compared. Explanations of
different things can also be compared if it is thought that they share similar
standards of explanation. The recognition of difference between competing
explanations and competing standards is useful in cases of interdisciplinary
exchanges like disciplinary imperialism. In cases of causal overdetermination,
both explanations could fit and explanatory although one exemplifies
explanatory virtues better than another (5).

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