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Flipped classroom is a reverse model of typical lecture and
homework. Students are encouraged to view lecture videos before coming to the
class and class time is utilised in discussions and exercises. Video lectures
are prepared in advance by instructor and posted online. Flipped classrooms are
drawn on the concept of active learning and student engagement. Students are
encouraged in individual enquiry whereas instructor plays a role of advisors or
coaches. It puts more of the responsibility on the shoulders of students to
learn and experiment.

2.2      ENQUIRY-BASED
LEARNING

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It is a term to describe
approaches to learning by enquiry. Students pursue their lines of enquiry based
on existing knowledge while tutor supports the process and establishes the
task. EBL is usually organised
around collaborative work in small groups or with structured support from
others, thus promoting the social interaction and cohesion that can be
difficult in a mass system (Kahn and O’Rourke, 2005, p. 1).

It gives opportunity to develop personal and professional
skills including leadership, teamwork and problem solving.

2.3      CO-OPERATIVE
LEARNING

It is a structured way to enhance student learning process by
using small groups which allows students to learn from each other. Students are
given a task and they work together to accomplish it. In addition to learning
from each other students also learn how to work as part of a team.

2.4      PEER
INSTRUCTION

It is an evidence based, interactive teaching method
developed by Harvard Professor Eric Mazur in the early 1990s. Students are
given Multiple choice question and students contribute their answers via
clickers. Then, they discuss the problem with their neighbours for few minutes.

Finally, the issues are resolved with a class discussion.

2.5      TEACHING
THEORIES

All of these learning techniques originated from various
theories. Cognitive and constructivism are two popular teaching theories. The
early cognitive theorists maintain that learning occurs in the “mind”, although
Piaget (1896–1980) did note that children learn from other children (Rogoff,
1999). Cognitivist tries to take charge and direct the students’ thinking.

Another more recent and influential theory is constructivism,
which highlights the importance of building on previous knowledge and making
sense of information. The Constructivist helps
the learner to discover meaning and understanding, rather than simply to accumulate
information” (Carlile and Jordan, 2005, p. 19). Constructivism encourages the
active learning process which emphasises the fact that construct their own
understanding. 

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