Hilda AgbenyegahMr. Edwards
28 April 2018
Civilization in Egypt and Mesopotamia
Civilization refers to an advanced state where human society containing highly developed form of government, cultures, industry and common social values. The plain flood when the river rises, and it blesses with riches that brings people merriments. The Egyptians and Mesopotamia were major agricultural civilizations. Though they share the same needs they were different from each other in many ways. Egypt and Mesopotamia’s economy, political societies, agriculture, geography, culture, and religion varies in more ways than one may realize.
In the views of Egyptian and Mesopotamia geography, they are at variance from each other. Egypt laid on the plains of the Nile River and ventured out into the Sahara Desert a diminutive amount. This had enabled the Egyptians to avoid invasion of her neighboring kingdoms and empires. On the other hand, Mesopotamia was sandwiched between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; though being in this area has enabled the neighboring kingdoms and empires to invade and constantly endeavored to gain control of the land. Though Egypt was much smaller in size to Mesopotamia, they both share small number of the same geographical aspect, they both lie on rivers that are imperative to their densely inhabited land, they are also in regions that receive small amount of rain throughout the year. This has provided some knowledge of how he people must have lived.
Egyptian culture was influenced to some degree by Mesopotamia in many ways other than politics. The Sumerian’s cuneiform alphabet developed by Mesopotamia was not accepted by the Egyptians; instead, they developed the hieroglyphic alphabets. In both Mesopotamia and Egypt, the system of writing was complex and therefore mainly used by the upper classes. Though the development of the papyrus, the Egyptians were able to reduce the cost of the writing materials and it developed extensive record keeping practices. Egypt, did not however establish the epic literary tradition that was prevalent in Mesopotamia.
Science in the Egyptians civilization was based on mathematics and astronomy and was less advanced that the science of Mesopotamia. Egyptians first to establish the calendar of the solar year. The Egyptians used the calendar based on the natural cycles and it suggest that they were trying to predict the cycle of Nile flooding. The Egyptians also made important advances in medicine, some of which were passed to the Greeks and then to the Middle Eastern and European civilizations,
Unlike Mesopotamia and the Middle East where an original river valley basis to civilization ultimately gave way to the spread of civilization throughout an entire region, Egyptians civilization from its origins to its decline was focused on the Nile River and the desert around it. The Nile focus also gave a more optimistic cast to Egyptians culture, for it could be seen as a source of never-failing bounty to be thankfully received rather than a menacing cause of floods. Egyptians civilization may at the outset have received some inspiration from Sumer, but a distinctive pattern soon developed in both religion and politics.
Social differences were less obvious because, it is difficult to obtain information on a daily life a early civilization. It is possible, though, than the status of women was greater in Egypt than in Mesopotamia ( where women’s positions seems to have deteriorated after Sumer). Egyptians paid great respect to women at least in the upper classes, in part because marriage alliances were vital to the preservation and stability of the monarchy. Also, Egyptians religion included more pronounced deference to goddesses as source of creativity.
Both societies traded extensively, but there was a difference in economic tone Mesopotamia was more productive of technological improvement because their environment was more difficult to manage than the Nile Valley. Trade contact were more extensive, and the Mesopotamia gave attention to a merchant class commercial law.
The education and languages of Egypt and Mesopotamia is similar in more ways than they are different. For one, both Egypt and Mesopotamia established formal schools in their civilization to educate the people. The main difference between Egypt and Mesopotamia is their form of writing and their language.
Egypt and Mesopotamia had their own religion, but one factor that was similar in their religious standpoint was that they were both polytheistic, meaning they had more than one god or goddess. The Egyptians gods and goddesses were recognized to the supplementary towards being ethical, mental, physical and spiritual figures. On the other hand Mesopotamia’s major religion had gods and goddesses that dealt more with natural phenomenon and the human body; that were thanked and blamed for natural occurrence’s and disasters that happened in Mesopotamia, though when you look at the meaning to them as the other society.
In conclusion, the economy, political society, agriculture, geographical, culture, and religion of Egypt and Mesopotamia vary in numerous ways giving to them their unique distinctions and aspect, but they also parallel in many ways in comparison. If I had a choice to live in Egypt and Mesopotamia, I would rather live in ancient Egypt. One reason is in ancient Egypt their law where more flexible than to Mesopotamia. Egypt also had a very good soil for growing crops because of their minerals from the Nile River. In Egypt they had a good form of storage system for surplus resources and lot of open jobs. Egypt is a place I have fantasized to visit because of their history, pyramids and mummies.