Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J.
(2000). SOCIAL IDENTITY AND SELF-
PROCESSES IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXTS. Academy Of Management Review, 25(1),
Although aspects of social
identity theory are familiar to organizational psychologists, its elaboration,
through self-categorization theory, of how social categorization and
prototype-based depersonalization actually produce social identity effects is
less well known. We describe these processes, relate self-categorization theory
to social identity theory, describe new theoretical developments in detail, and
show how these developments can address a range of organizational phenomena. We
discuss cohesion and deviance, leadership, subgroup and sociodemographic
structure, and mergers and acquisitions.
This source was relevant to my
observation because it showed the different prototypes that each group fitted
into. This clarified for me why certain people connected well with Senior Chief
Gray more than Chief Young.
Hogg, M. A. (2001). A Social
Identity Theory of Leadership. Personality & Social
Psychology Review (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), 5(3),
A social identity theory of
leadership is described that views leadership as a group process generated by
social categorization and prototype-based depersonalization processes
associated with social identity. Group identification, as self-categorization,
constructs an intragroup prototypicality gradient that invests the most
prototypical member with the appearance of having influence; the appearance
arises because members cognitively and behaviorally conform to the prototype.
The appearance of influence becomes a reality through depersonalized social
attraction processes that make followers agree and comply with the leader’s
ideas and suggestions. Consensual social attraction also imbues the leader with
apparent status and creates a status-based structural differentiation within
the group into leader(s) and followers, which has characteristics of unequal
status intergroup relations. In addition, a fundamental attribution process
constructs a charismatic leadership personality for the leader, which further empowers
the leader and sharpens the leader–follower status differential. Empirical
support for the theory is reviewed and a range of implications discussed,
including intergroup dimensions, uncertainty reduction and extremism, power,
and pitfalls of prototype-based leadership.
This source was very useful for me in my
conclusion. It answered some of my initial questions for this observation such
as how I noticed that certain people belonged to a particular group. The men
with Senior Chief Gray and the women with Chief Young.
Hunt, M. O., Jackson, P. B.,
Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (2000). Color-Blind: The
of Race and Ethnicity in Social Psychology. Social Psychology Quarterly, (4),
We explore the extent to which
race and ethnicity have been incorporated in social psychological scholarship
and argue that social psychologists should, and can, do better in this regard.
First, we discuss why social psychologists should consider race more seriously.
We question whether scholars can reasonably continue to assume that basic
social psychological processes and theories apply equally well to different
racial and ethnic groups. Second, we document the extent to which social
psychology has engaged issues of race and ethnicity through a content analysis of
the last three decades of Social Psychology Quarterly and the two most
comprehensive sourcebooks for social psychology. Comparisons with other
specialty journals in sociology and psychology and with the increasing research
on gender over the same period highlight the extent to which race has been
neglected in social psychology. Finally, in looking to the future, we discuss
how race can be given more attention in light of recent methodological advances
and emerging research programs.
This source is beneficial to my
observation for one reason. It helps to understand the importance that race and
ethnicity can play in a social group.
Merchant, K. (2012). How Men
And Women Differ: Gender Differences in Communication
Styles, Influence Tactics, and Leadership Styles.
Retrieved December 13, 2017
This paper lays the historical
background for why women and leadership is an important topic today in order to
discuss gender differences in communication styles, influence tactics, and
leadership styles. This paper also outlines barriers women face when trying to
attain and succeed in leadership positions. The analysis should provide a
greater understanding of how men and women differ, especially in leadership and
management positions, and what companies can do to help women overcome gender
bias and discrimination in the workplace.
This was a good source for my
observation because it helped me dissect the differences between the
communication styles of men and women. I was able to see how Chief Young used
her conversations as a tool to connect deeper with people.
Nelson, T. (1999). Motivational
Bases of Prosocial and Altruistic Behavior: A Critical
Reappraisal. Journal of Research, 4(1), 23-31.
psychologists and biologists have debated the existence of altruism in humans
for years. Two predominant views across these fields explained altruistic
behavior in terms of reinforcement or evolutionary genetics. Today, psychology
still adheres to the notion that pure altruism cannot be demonstrated and is
better explained through other egoistic models (e.g., reinforcement). The
evidence for and against each of these perspectives is weighed. The focus of
this review is on the substantial findings accumulated over the past fifteen
years in psychology, supporting the idea that pure altruism does exist and is
causally linked to feelings of empathy for the victim.
This was a good
source to use because it showed me how Senior Chief Gray uses pro-social
behavior to gain trust from the enlisted ranks, respect, and dedication that is
used to contribute to the overall command mission.