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 Huckleberry Finn within the context of chapter eight once stated, “Every time I waked up I thought somebody had me by the neck. So the sleep didn’t do me no good. By and by I says to myself, I can’t live this way.” Twain’s belief of American society is that he regarded it as a place where they wrongfully place African Americans under injustices, and this is apparent through the presentation of characters and event within the passage. As he expresses his views of the foolishness that exists within their society, he portrays a very pessimistic outlook by including examples of greed, racism, and outright hypocrisy that society has to offer. The novel documents the journey of a young Caucasian boy and a runaway African Amercian as they attempt to overcome the obstacles society has to offer to pursue and eventually obtain true freedom. Throughout their migration, it is made known that Twain uses a number of rhetorical devices to expose the imprudence that appears to be the basis of humanity itself – corruption. One literary device he uses predominantly uses is known as satire, and with this he is able to present a critical attitude, as well as key points that involve humor and above all – moral voice that speaks on behalf of the human race that existed within this time period.  As an illustration, chapter eight of Huckleberry Finn revolves around Huck waking up on Jackson’s Island as he is on the run from the authorities, and coming across none other than Miss Watson’s runaway slave, Jim. Within the context of this assigned passage, once Huck stumbles upon Jim’s presence – his reaction of pure joy at the thought of having found a companion, which would be perceived by other citizens from civilization as a disgrace, going against their   Bracamonte 1       morals and beliefs. As Jim is reintroduced in order to extend the theme of freedom, a satirical technique known as incongruity is presented through Jim who is slave  that should not be out in the open, in nature. It is absurd to view the likes of a slave act and about anywhere outside of the grasp of the slave owners. In consonance with the passage, it asserts that, “It was getting gray daylight now. Pretty soon he gapped and stretched himself and hove off the blanket, and it was Miss Watson’s Jim! I bet I was glad to see him.” This scene in itself just comes to show that Huck as he was already struggling with the restrictions and the laws of society that he was being raised to live by, it foreshadows Hucks’s break from society as a whole since the circumstances have been set up that will eventually lead into their excursion to the free states. Notwithstanding the fact that he is comforted knowing that Jim is beside him, he is not capable of shaking off society’s teachings and influences – despite having the tendency to reject their ways of living. Subsequently, this chapter serves more than one purpose as it begins to establish the slowly bubbling relationship between Huck and Jim, and how their roles they’ve lived up until their meeting on the island contrasts between one another. See, Huck’s inceptive thoughts of Jim was stereotypical enough – however, Jim in this chapter quickly portrays his capability of using his authority on superstition to his advantage and assist them with their time on the island together. Mark Twain here desired to develop his themes of slavery and equality by using dramatic irony as Huck initially wakes up to the belief of someone taking him by the neck, this act alone contrasts between the meaning behind it happening in the first place and the significance me the reader understands it to be. At the same time, it also exhibits the usage of foreshadowing as it is self-explanatory that this same example is used by Twain to drop a hint that events in relation to struggles as well as situations involving death is to come in the near future. Pursuant to the novel, it conveys, “I didn’t sleep much, I couldn’t, somehow, for thinking.   Bracamonte 1       And every time I waked up I thought somebody had me by the neck. By and by I says to myself, I can’t live this way.” The scene here displays how the average African American is always lower than everyone else – since they lived in pre-Civil War South. Twain’s point of view resembles that of a cynic a he regards the typical ‘civilized’ man as merciless and hypocritical barbarians living their lives without a want or need for change. Given these points, both Huck and Jim are known to share many similarities with one another without knowing it until they inform one of another their reasons for running away, and only then is it made clear how much they have in common. Before their encounter on the island, both of them wished for a chance to escape their current lives. Huck wanted to leave the abuse and tyranny his drunken father has to offer. As for Jim, had no choice but to escape from the clutches of Miss Watson and she wished to sell him down the Mississippi River, and he could not have this seeing as he has to return to his family and gain their freedom altogether. A twin image is clearly used as Jim and Huck could be perceived as twins in a certain aspect as they are searching for their own liberty, but one remains with the status of a slave and the other being more privileged. In Twain’s novel, it implies, “The next day I went exploring around down through the island. I was boss of it; it all belonged to me, so to say, and I wanted to know all about it; but mainly I wanted to put in the time.” The scene that is set by Twain presents the idea of development of one’s self through individualism despite society’s norms existing. The literary element in effect here would be none other than an aphorism, as Twain does anything but fail me along with countless other readers as he bestows a universal truth upon us – regardless of anyone else’s beliefs, people should be able to choose between living in a more corrupt civilization or a more morally superior natural life away from their clutches.    Bracamonte 1       To return to the subject, Twain’s main purpose of using mostly satire along with other literary elements is all for the sake of bringing attention to a serious matter that evidently is hushed and brushed away lightly – the fact that the majority of people will not ever change, but they should at least be aware of who or what they are. In passage eight, it is made known that the townspeople are using a cannon in order to find Huck since they are crestfallen over the news absence and do what they are capable of to find him, or what is left of him. Before he is able to get out from the tree he takes shelter in and come across Jim for their first reunion, the tumult caused by the use of the cannon awakens him. At first, Huck shows signs of being so overjoyed knowing he has escaped his dad’s grasp that even the squirrels seem to be entirely welcoming towards him. His time on the island includes much exaggeration, as he enlarges his experiences being there beyond normal bounds. Conforming to the provided content, it mentions, “My heart jumped up amongst my lungs. I never waited for to look further but uncocked my gun and went sneaking back on my tiptoes as fast as ever.” Once he joins Jim, it is only then that he fully comprehends that if they were able to find Jim, they would most definitely turn the cannon on him.  Slaves were viewed as the property of the Caucasians, and those owners could do as they pleased to them – in spite of Huck’s young age he knows this what will become of Jim, and thus his internal conflict on whether or not he should turn Jim in himself or not.  As a final point, Huckleberry Finn was written after slavery was essentially ‘abolished’ yet even by the time Twain lived, things had not gotten any better for the African Americans in the south. By using countless examples of satire within the context of his novel, Mark Twain is able to expose the hypocrisy of slavery and in turn demonstrates just how much racism distorts the tormentors as much as the ones that are in the end tormented. The novel itself exists as a depiction of the condition of the African Americans even after the abolition of slavery. The result   Bracamonte 1       of this that is left behind is a world of dishonorable citizens stuck with moral confusion such as Miss Judith Loftus who is supposed to have been one of the ‘innocent’ Caucasian people seem to express no concern whatsoever about the inequity of the institutions of slavery that is the foundation of slavery. Hence, Twain’s hope is to accomplish is to present American society through the eyes of a young boy named Huck Finn. With this, Twain was known to be very antislavery and used satire to counteract it – though slavery is technically over, he needs the rest of the world to know that it is very much prevalent.  

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