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In this novel “on identity” by Amin Maalouf
the first chapter talks about Maalouf who is a famous novelist who lived and
grew up in Lebanon then moved to France in 1976. When Maalouf Became 27 years
old he started to see himself that he is Lebanese and French. Maalouf lived in
France for 22 years, later Maalouf started to ask himself “so am I half
French and half Lebanese?” he does not like the singular identity of
fantastic. About fantastic Maalouf writes any theory with which they identify
can be wrong and bloody, including religion, nationalism and communism. The
first unit of the chapter one Maalouf mainly talks about how people describe or
see their identity, how he describes it and what is identity for example:
“let us observe a man of 50 whom we see in the street. In 1980 he might
have said proudly without hesitation. “I am Yugoslavian!” questioned
more closely he could have said  he was a
citizen of the federal republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and incidentally,  that he came from a Muslim family” here
Maalouf is showing us that this old man has different identities but he didn’t
mention them since he might get in a complicated situation in his country .
Maalouf also mentions an example of the man who is 50, when you meet the same man
twelve years later. When the war height was at its height , he might have
answered that he is a Muslim! Also he might grow a beard and he also mentions
that he is a Bosnian. He would not be pleased to be reminded of how proudly he
once called himself a Yugoslavia. In these two examples Maalouf is showing us
how this person will define himself if you met him. He wouldn’t know from where
to start. Maalouf also talks about religion and nation reflects their own
identity. He gave an example of both Turks and Kurds are Muslims, though they
speak different languages but they still the war between them is unit
two from chapter one briefly talks about his identity and what he did in life
also he is giving us examples to attract the readers mind directly. He mentions
that being Christian and having his mother tongue Arabic, the hoy language of
Islam is one of the basic paradoxes that shaped his own identity. He also
specifically talks about his identity in details, why he went to France and he
talked about every member in his family. In this unit he convinced us that
human beings are the same, but each one is different from another. In unit
three chapters one is talking about that our identity is already in our birth.
He gives examples about sex and the color, in sex to be born girl is not the
same in Kabul. To be born black is different matter according to whether you
come into the world in New York, Lagos and Luanda. He mentions these examples
only to underline the fact that even color and sex are not “absolute”
ingredients of identity. Maalouf also talks about allegiance. Some people often
see themselves in terms of whichever one of their allegiances is most under
attack. Some people don’t have the strength to defend that allegiance he hides
it. Other people who share the same allegiances sympathize which they all
gather together, join forces, encourage one another. Amin Maalouf also mentions
when an otherwise normal man is transformed overnight into a killer. Where he
turns into killer will conventionally be called “murderous fully”
when they turns into butchers when they suspect that their tribe is being
threatened. Unit four from chapter the writer talks about how a person’s identity
changes, at a very young age it doesn’t stay the same because when he grows up
he discovers more thing about life and about himself. Also the author talks
about the perspective which means they are not going to respond the same. for
example if the baby was born black in America they are going to respond differently,
but in Africa it’s okay to them. Maalouf also talks about when a baby is born
and they put him in an another country not the country he was born in ,other
people like his friends or relatives they can influence him into believing in
what they believe in for example where he was born or what his family believed
in or his traditions. He will all forget them since his parents put him in another
country and other people influenced him or her.  He also talks about that some people forget
some parts of their identities according what is happening in their life. For example
if a person is half American half Australian and people asked where are you
from he will say that he is from America because maybe in Austria wars are
happening there. The author in unit five from chapter one continues to explain about
why people decide to kill and murder others ,also to offend their religion and
nationality .he is also is saying that how those individuals they are being
influenced by murders .for example the people see the murders are killing so
the people start to kill others. He is also explaining how humans are very
bias. For example if two people have the same religion if someone offended
their religion, so they will work together they don’t care about other religions
and they don’t care about who is offending them, so they will use violence an
answer by violence they mean that they are defending their country, religion. The
authors say how they can be criminals when all they are doing is protecting
their aged mothers and criminals.  The authors
says that if we can accept the fact that we are different , the fact that we have
several identities , we are going to be unable to accept people and therefor we
are going to result by using violence as answer which is killing.

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