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In recent years, skills development has become a priority among developed and developing countries alike. Having a skilled workforce has been recognized as paramount to boosting competitiveness in an increasingly global and interdependent economic environment, fostering innovation and business creation and increasing productivity. Since individuals with the right skills and knowledge are more likely to find employment, skills development can also have positive effects in reducing unemployment, raising incomes, and improving standards of living.This is consistent with the writer’s ideological order. He writes this paper trying to deal with different issues concerning how to measure educational attainment across countries and over time, the role of male versus female schooling and the educational inequality and mismatch. First of all let’s see the role of education: education is supposed to bring higher productivity and earnings, better health, nutrition and personal development and of course higher output and national competitiveness. For the macroeconomic aspect, education improves labor productivity, facilitate technological innovation and adoption and contribute to economic growth.
Many authors have examined the relationship between education and the labor market. Especially Psacharopoulos(1994); Psacharopoulos and Patrinos(2004) found that on average, an additional year of schooling results in about 10% of higher wage. Some others show that rates of return to schooling are higher for primary education and they can vary across countries and over time. Skill-biased technological progress increases skill premium and demand for educated workers (Katz and Murphy, 1992). Higher endowment of skilled workers can induce the development of skill-complementary technologies (Acemoglu, 2002). Now, let’s have a look at the evolution of education over two centuries. Lee and Lee (2016) construct an educational attainment disaggregated by education level and gender for 111 countries from 1870 to 2010 at five intervals. For the estimation methodology, they calculate educational attainment distribution at 4 broad categories. Missing observations are estimated observations by forward/backward extrapolation or weighted average and estimate average years of schooling by population group, and by education group. The graph showing the evolution of educational attainment for developing and advanced countries from 1870 to 2010 shows a similar trend for both. The only difference is reflected in the number of years spent in school. In developing countries, the number of years spent in school has increased from some months in 1870 to an average of 8 years in 2010 while this number is from 2 to 11 years in advanced country. This shows how education is a priority in those countries which is justified by their current level of development. However we have an upward trend in almost all regions in the world.
During recent years, educational inequality has declined continuously in all regions. Even the regions with greater inequality, such as South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, have experienced a substantial reduction in educational inequality though they still have a long way to go compared to advanced economies and the ones in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The Education Gini which is a new indicator for the distribution of human capital and welfare, facilitating comparison of education inequality across countries and over time for the same kinds of countries shows that the education inequality is still huge in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia though declining. Advanced countries naturally exhibit smallest education Ginis. The literature also shows that for the Korean sample that 29% of Korean full-time employees are overeducated and 14% are undereducated and returns to an overeducated year vary across field of study at the tertiary level. Majors with relatively high returns are health and welfare, engineering, social sciences, business and law.
For the empirical analysis of educational inequality, the author regressed education Gini on a bunch of explanatory variables such as Income Gini, educational attainment or one-period lagged Education Gini. A group of environmental and policy variables (? X?_it) including trade openness, inflation, fiscal policy (government consumption and public education spending), democracy, and technological progress has also been added. For the data, a panel set of cross-country data for 95 economies over 7 five-year periods from 1980 to 2014 has been used. They have used one-period lagged values for per-capita income, income inequality and educational variables and averaged values over the previous five years for policy variables. The results show that the estimates for per capita GDP are significant and positive which means an increase in the GDP per capita leads to an increase in the Education Gini. The estimate for Income Gini is positive but non-significant. Also, educational attainment and Education have an inverse relation, which means the more people are educated, the less is the education inequality, same as education spending which is significant and negative.
The author’s methodology and results are quite standard. The data collected and used expands on a very long period and might reflect the general situation of different inputs. The only thing that is surprising is the fact that a growing economy will worsen the Education inequality. This is something I was not expecting. On review of several studies of cross-country growth, Easterly and Levine (2000) concluded that TFP (factors other than physical and human capital) explain bulk of the differences in economic growth and recommended shift in focus from capital accumulation to policies that promote TFP growth. Higher education has been seen principally as a form of investment that develops human capital (Schultz 1972) for many years, with new understanding of the decisive role of TFP strongly influenced by higher education has brought higher education to the center stage in economic growth of nations. So this result could be seen again and discussed further to identify the mechanism for such a result.
There has been remarkable growth in average educational attainment as well as narrowing of the gap in average educational attainment between nations. There is an ongoing debate on the role of education on the future prospects of the country. Should the country promote specific fields, and if yes which ones? Two schools of thought have been proffered. One argues that there is not enough information to make a choice that will withstand the uncertainty in the markets. The appropriate strategy, according to this view, is to address market failures in the education, labor, and allied markets. The other view, of course, holds that educational planning is required to minimize wastage from increasing unemployment of college graduates. The floor is open for debate.

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In recent years, tourism plays an essential role in the development of many countries that own natural or stunning views. It is true that growing need in tourist brings the valuable contribution to the society. However, its negative edges are undeniable. In this essay, three mainly effected sides: environment, socio-cultural and economy will be discussed.

To begin with, tourism has several effects on our environment. The first one is about detrimental impacts. Due to intensely increasing demand of many means of public transportation in tourist destinations, there are the high level of exhaust fumes as well as air and noise pollution around these tourist areas. The International Civil Aviation Organization reported that the number of international air passengers worldwide went up from 88 million to 344 million between 1972 and 1994. One research estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost half the carbon dioxide emissions sent into the atmosphere by all other sources (lighting, heating and car consumption) used by an average person per year (ICAO, 2001).

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Another harmful side is the excessive exploitation of natural resources. When expansion of infrastructures such as roads, railways and airports, and recreation facilities including hotels, resorts, shopping malls, restaurants and bars, this not only destroys the habitat of various species but also increases raw materials for buildings. These activities lead to a scarcity resource of our Earth and depletion of our living environment. For example, the extraction of building materials such as sand affects coral reefs, mangroves, and hinterland forests results in erosion and destruction of habitats. Take the Philippines and the Maldives are significant examples, dynamiting and mining of coral for hotel and resort building materials has damaged seriously fragile coral reefs and diminished the fisheries (Hall, 2001). Additionally, the excessive use of some renewable energy is also an urgent issue that the locals have to face. For instance, Various tourist activities add to water consumption, a great example being golf (Rodriguez Diaz et al. 2007). The consumption of water by golf courses varies considerably, depending on soils, climate and golf course size (Baillon & Ceron, 1991; Ceron & Kovacs, 1993). While in several tourist attractions farmers do not have enough water for their crops.
Notwithstanding, tourism is also a potential element to create beneficial influences by contributing to environmental protection and conservation. Local governments should conduct campaigns or TV programs to raise awareness of both tourists and residents of protecting the natural beauty. For instance, travellers should be encouraged to walk as much as possible and the locals should get to know more about habitat protection through educational programs of environmental conservation. Consequently, these actions can reduce the adverse influences of tourism. To sum up, although there are some negative edges of tourism to the environment, this should be improved by activities of authorities, tourist and the locals.
The second impact of tourism is the socio-cultural aspect. The major priority is the intercultural exchange. When foreigners pay a visit to new lands, they are regularly willing to find out different kinds of cultures and traditions such as beliefs, lifestyle, customs and speciality (Wood, 1994). This helps both local and travellers to gain the other friendships and mutual understanding. Therefore, there will not happen the discrimination and conflicts among people from different regions. Nevertheless, if residents are not aware of preserving characteristics, a wide range of their different traditional values and cultures might be forgotten and they have to cope with changes depend on the characteristics of visitors (Pearce, Moscardo, & Ross, 1996). To conclude, tourism has an obvious negative downside of cultural maintenance, but positive impacts of tourism on socio-cultural are much more significant.
The final influence of tourism is economic perspective. On the one hand, tourism is a crucial factor in the economic development. The most important factor is that it can create a variety of employment opportunities for not only the local but also people from other countries. Many hotels and resorts are built in prominent places, so they need a huge amount of labour and a range of positions such as tour guides, waiters, waitresses and hotel management. Therefore, tourism has a considerable contribution to the decrease in unemployment rate. For instance, in 2017, the gradual increase in tourism industry contributed USD 8.5 trillion to the global nation’s growth and created over 8.5 million jobs (International Monetary Fund, 2017). Secondly, tourism can generate a wide profit. As large incomes are yielded from accommodations, services and various infrastructures such as transport systems, hospitals, entertainment centres and exhibition malls. This allows inhabitants to enhance their living standard. Furthermore, tourism activities also increase the tax-revenue of the state governments (Gee et al., 1989). These financial resources can be allocated by the local governments for investing in other fields: education and healthcare, even they can be used to protect and regenerate natural landscape.
On the other hand, there are some undeniable outcomes that tourism brings to economy. Firstly, development of tourism is seasonal, this means the jobs of residents heavily depend on seasons in a year. As the number of tourists changes frequently and cannot be predicted, the locals have to face joblessness when the number of tourists decreases (Cooper, Fletcher, Gilbert ; Wanhill, 1993). And these jobs are often poorly paid. Moreover, there are some difficulties for the local community when they live in their attractive destinations. The primal problem is the extension of the cost of products, services and housing there. Due to the increase in profit, the prices of everything in tourism places are usually more expensive than other ones and residents whose income does not rise proportionately are often less wealthy than travellers, which discourages them to use items that they produce and even they cannot afford to stay there (Cooper, Fletcher, Gilbert ; Wanhill, 1993; Mathieson ; Wall, 1982). In short, tourism has both advantageous and disadvantageous impacts on economy and some countries relying greatly on tourism need to consider and judge carefully about these sides to find out the suitable solutions as this can be an enormous problem if tourists stop coming.
By way of conclusion, no one can deny the crucial role of tourism. In spite of the significant benefits on economic, environmental and socio aspects, there are still several drawbacks that need to be tackled by actions of governments, tourists and especially the locals.

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