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In order to offer a considered and balanced review on academic disciplines and the leading to confusion, then the term discipline must be defined first. A discipline is a specified subject within an area of knowledge with various criterions that create a distinction between another subject within that area of knowledge. With this definition, interdisciplinary approaches can be identified as combining two disciplines within an area of knowledge. The claim states that this act of combining can only lead to confusion, which can be defined as uncertainty in the knowledge that one possesses. The use of “only” is an absolute term, which cannot be used when discussing knowledge as nothing is absolute, so this claim can only be believed to be valid to a moderate extent. In regards to the area of religious knowledge systems, more specifically Judaism and Christianity, the combining of ideas would only lead to tension and a sense of confusion in people that already have their specific beliefs in one discipline of religion. But in regards to the natural sciences, more specifically within the disciplines of biology and chemistry, combining methodology and ideas can be used to greater understand each discipline. A way that we obtain knowledge through both of these areas of knowledge and their disciplines is through empiricism, which is the idea that knowledge is derived from the senses and through experiences, so this leads to the main questioning of in what ways does empiricism play a role in how we determine knowledge?         Faith in authority, or a higher power, is significant towards how one views the world and determines the knowledge they have in regards to religious knowledge systems. This leads to the embedded knowledge question – to what extent does faith in authority affect empiricism?Christianity and Judaism are religions that come from the same beginnings, as Christianity would not even exist if it wasn’t for Judaism. Also, both religions have similar conceptions of the nature of God, recognizing some of the same sacred texts, for instance they both read the Old Testament, and they also have many of the same basic beliefs concerning the creation of the world, as well as ideas about hell, heaven, and the need for punishment after acts of sin. Although these religions do have similar ideals, they still have a major difference in a particular belief. This is who each religion believes to be their faith in authority, or higher power. The Jewish people believe that God will one day send a Messiah to bring Israel a new era of peace. For Christians, that Messiah came already in the form of Jesus Christ. This difference can be seen by the addition of the New Testament that only Christians read because it discusses that Jesus is the Messiah, but Jewish people will only read the Old Testament as it solely refers to Jesus Christ as a prophet, not as the Messiah. These particular sacred text is a physical representation of these two religions difference in beliefs in who is their faith in authority. Even though these two religious systems could easily overlap and unite, this would never happen because of their difference in faith of authority. The faith in authority that each religion shares causes their perception, which is in regards to empiricism, to be affected by how one religion sees the other. An argument supporting this could be that there is sometimes an overlapping between these two religions as there are in fact people that are both Christian and Jewish, I myself being in this situation. Coming from families that practice both religions, I have adopted the ways of both religions over time. Although, I do find myself steering towards one religion or the other in regards to certain beliefs and I do also find myself confused about who I believe truly is my higher power in the universe. This personally shows how knowledge can become confused when overlapping disciplines.           Overall, the faith in authority that one has affects the way one views and sees things and how they construct and determine their knowledge to a moderate extent. This is seen between Christianity and Judaism as both religions originated from the same beginnings, but the systems as wholes could never truly accept each other’s overall ideals as they were shaped differently based on the faith in authority they have, as the Christians believe it is Jesus Christ while the Jewish people believe that this person has not arrived yet. In the area of religious systems, faith in authority is the basis of one’s shared knowledge which affects their personal knowledge and how they will view other disciplines outside of their own, and this disruption between knowledge could be the reason why religions are separately institutionalized.         Reasoning is an important and influential way of knowing when discussing the natural sciences as this area is based on facts and justifications. The overlapping of disciplines within the natural sciences is done frequently when various scientists are attempting to reason the validity of a claim or when they’re trying to form new knowledge. This lead to my embedded knowledge – how reliable are interdisciplinary approaches while in the process of a scientific investigation? Academic disciplines that this question can be explored with are biology and chemistry. Biology is the study of living organisms and their properties. It is divided into many specialized subjects, or disciplines, that provide information on organism’s anatomy, physiology, behavior, and origin. One of these disciplines that is needed to explain concepts in biology is chemistry, which is the study of substances and molecules and the investigation of their properties and how they can change and interact with other variables. Chemistry helps with understanding biology because everything that regulates life on Earth only takes place because of the chemical properties of the molecules and atoms involved. For example, when reasoning the process of evolution, biologists had to consider the work that chemists had done on the make-up DNA molecules and atoms and how they interacted in order to explain the change the life form of human beings, animals, etc. In fact, there was enough reasoning to the Greeks that these two disciplines depended on each other so frequently that they developed the field of biochemistry, the study of chemical processes in relevance to living organisms, during the 19th century. Biochemistry in modern times is still popularly studied and is a concrete representation of how two disciplines within the natural sciences can physically be combined. Although, the disciplines of biology and chemistry possess different terminology that is required to be used pertaining to which discipline is being explored. For example, a chemist may know that an allomer is a substance that has a different composition than another because it is a specific term to chemistry, but if you were to introduce this to a biologist then they would most likely not know the meaning behind the terminology and become confused about the knowledge trying to be obtained. This is not a significant issue though as terminology can easily be taught and learned by others. Overall, the approach of overlapping academic disciplines is very reliable in regards to the natural sciences. Biology and chemistry have a beneficial relationship that allows them to feed off each other’s knowledge, which is a useful interdisciplinary approach towards fully understanding knowledge and even creating new ideas. Reasoning plays a significant role in the overlapping of disciplines because without the need for reasoning in the natural sciences, then no investigations for knowledge would be done, and we would not be able to utilize empiricism to justify claims or determine if we are in a state of confusion.                 In regards to my main knowledge question, empiricism affects how we determine the knowledge that we possess and it plays a role as the basis of our knowledge in a way that is almosts acts as a catalyst for forming new knowledge. It can provide clarity and new ideas during scientific investigations when interdisciplinary approaches are utilized, especially as seen by the relationship between biology and chemistry as the field of biochemistry was created solefully for the purpose of combining the two disciplines. Although, it is still important to consider that confusion can still occur as nothing pertaining to knowledge is absolute. This is also shown by how empiricism may be affected by our faith in authority, as seen through the religious systems of Christianity and Judaism. In regards to the original claim, the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches while attempting to produce knowledge may affect how one views their knowledge and can lead to confusion, but only to a moderate extent. It seems to be dependent on the area of knowledge and the disciplines being considered. This shows that it is important to be both reflective yet open-minded while trying to have a true understanding of all knowledge within the areas to avoid becoming confused. The overlapping of academic disciplines could be done more efficiently this way and a greater sense of overall knowledge can be developed rather than confusion of knowledge.

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