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Internet
of things (IoT) is an explosion of wireless communication in 21st
century. Its evolution is due to the emerging technologies, software embedded sensors,
internet, and communication protocols. In today’s globalised world, internet of
things is widely used to access any information from anywhere without any
boundary limits. According to technology consulting firm Gartner, 2.1 billion
devices are expected to be connected by 2020. Similarly, the Cisco Internet
Business Solutions Group (IBSG) report clearly shows that in the year 2003,
world population is 6.3 billion and the total number of devices connected to
the internet is 500 million. In future Cisco IBSG expects 50 billion devices to
be connected to the internet by the year 2020.Therefore, IoT has the power to
revolutionize the entire world and all human beings are at the beginning of the
transformational journey. IoT will systematically alter the way of living as
the Internet strikes on education, health, homes, communications, transportation,
cities, business, science, government, men in general because daily life and
interaction with devices like car, Television, wearable devices, mobile phones,
door bell ,household objects, alarm systems, smoke detector etc., will connect
to the internet in coming decade.

In
the advanced technology of connected devices, machines as well as devices need
to be secured in design and system levels. The
present IoT technology automates the process and provides safer living to the
people. The Automation and monitoring system demands mobility, fault tolerance
and security features with the resource constrained inputs.  Providing security and reliability within
stipulated memory and processing capability confines the mobility of the user
within a small Region of Interest, restricting their demands. Moreover, IoT
encloses an incredible number of small devices connected together. The
IoT is revealing an important need in technology, that is, programmable
hardware and I/O, power efficiency, incompatible interfaces, and specialised processor.
An FPGA-based design approach can help address such challenges.

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The IoT devices are endowed with numerous tiny sensors,
processors, transceivers and external power sources
.The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a family
of reconfigurable hardware. The term ‘Field’ indicates the operation changing
capability within the field and ‘Gate Array’ means the construction of internal
architecture of the device.FPGA devices can interface with the outside
world very easily and provide lowest power, lowest latency and best determinism.
IoT also discover fundamental concepts of cloud computing, wireless interfaces
and controlling things with Android phones. Arduino and Raspberry Pi are also
used for interface purposes.FPGA is a programmable special-purpose processor which
can handle signals at its input pins, process these and drive signals on its
output pins. The above system is very deterministic. An FPGA can interact with
memory and storage devices through serialiser/deserialiser interfaces (SERDES),
which also allow for Ethernet, serial or Bluetooth communication. FPGA could be
combined with an ARM processor to leverage higher-level software functions such
as Web servers or security packages, if higher level of processing is required.
The main consideration is the programmable aspect of an FPGA. In a typical
development cycle, a supplier development kit is employed to configure FPGA,
while a printed circuit board (PCB) is developed with specific
sensor/communication/display components, as required.

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