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Introduction Throughout history humans have found various ways of entertainment, however none have been as influential as motion pictures. It was during the 1900’s when silent films gave people a new way to gather, as well as a window to the world. Once the motion pictures industry began to grow Thomas Edison began working on the very first camera and silent film. As he expanded his knowledge more people such as the Lumiere brothers worked on what Edison already had to create new and better tools. While it kept expanding, so did its business such as the selling of tools and how it was distributed.The Early Years Thomas Edison is known for starting filmmaking, yet it was a British photographer by the name of Eadweard Muybridge who had discovered motion pictures trying to prove his very own theory. His theory consisted of proving a horse raised all four its hooves at one point. Important to realize, is that the movement is too fast for the human eyes, therefore Muybridge had to experiment with multiple cameras. It wasn’t until 1872 when he set up a battery of 12 cameras along a race course in sacramento with wires stretched across the track, opposite of its shutters. As a horse strode down, its hooves triggered each shutter individual to create a successive photograph. In Britannica.com it states,”When Muybridge later mounted these images on a rotating disk and projected them on a screen through a magic lantern, they produced a “moving picture” of the horse at full gallop as it had actually occurred in life.” This would prove his theory although it took him a total of five years from 1875 through 1877.Edison and his Work Thomas Edison is very known for his start and expansion of the film industry. To begin, his work on the film industry not only did he make the first silent film, but Thomas Alva Edison created the Kinetoscope. The Kinetoscope was designed by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson. Dickson worked on the kinetograph which was an early movie camera. Along with the kinetograph Dickson and his team also built a strip that could be wrapped around a sort of wheel. The kinetograph was a great project as it  took pictures so fast that they would appear to move. Even though it was a success Edison did not comission the kinetograph; Thus, asked Dickson to design the Kinetoscope. As in Britannica.com it states,”Because Edison had originally conceived of motion pictures as an adjunct to his phonograph, he did not commission the invention of a projector to accompany the Kinetograph.” In order for Edison to take his project to the next level his staff and him needed a stage to begin progress on making movies. Thereby, creating the Black Maria in 1893. The Black Maria was stage that Edison built out of wood planks and tar paper, with a roof opened up to the sun, for Edison used the sun as he knew his stage lights were not bright enough for his films. Edison and his staff would create short films and then view them in store- front movie parlors. Once he combined his movie camera the kinetoscope and Thomas Arimat’s projector filmmaking would make its way to theaters as a form of entertainment. After creating the Black Maria Edison and his muckers quickly went to work. His most recognized film and known as the beginning of silent films, The Great Train Robbery was filmed. The Great Train Robbery was filmed in various places of Northern NJ. The film helped boost it as a filmmaking area. The Great Train Robbery was both action and classic western film. It was about four bandits who rob a train filled of passengers. The film introduced a scene that would later be repeated, the scene consisted of a character shooting near a mans feet forcing him to dance. This was not the only scene repeated from the film, the most iconic scene was when a man would shoot the camera to end the movie. Not only did it introduce many ways of filming it also introduced a new way of editing. It included cross cutting, which is when a film cuts between two different scenes. This film was hugely popular as it was the first narrative film. The most fascinating part is that the film only lasted about twelve minutes.Expanding the Film Industry As Edison’s work expanded more and more people began experimenting on their own creations. One of the very people that worked on among Edison’s work were the Lumiere Brothers. The Lumiere Brothers were inspired by kinetoscope exhibition to invent the first commercially viable projector. They later went on to create the cinematographe, and unlike the Kinetograph that Dickson first worked on, it weighed less than 20 pounds. Lumiere films were mainly composed of documentary views or actualities, unlike Edison films that initially included circus or vaudeville acts. However in both cases the films were composed of a single unedited shot emphasizing lifelike movement. Though there films differed, after a few years in design changes there cinematographe allowed Lumiere films to shoot the same films as Edison. Two other people that impacted the film industry highly were Melies and Porter. George Melies was a professional magician, who was interested in the illusionist possibilities of the Lumiere Brothers cinematographe. Although, the Lumieres refused to sell him one, he ended up buying a past one in 1896 were he would reverse the mechanical principles to design his very own camera. The following year he organized the Star Film company and created his very own small glass-enclosed studio in Montreuil. He initially used stop-motion photography, which was when the action stopped while something is added or removed from the scene. These films were called one-shot trick films. On the other hand, Edwin Stanton Porter was a freelance projectionist and engineer who joined the Edison company in 1900. In spite of that, he worked as a director-cameraman for much of Edison’s output. While working for Edison and his company he created one-shot trick films, short multiscene narratives and films with time-lapse photography. It was probably his experience as a projectionist while working in the Eden Musee theatre in 1898 that led him to practice continuity editing in the early years of 1900s. Porter was also influenced by other filmmakers especially Melies. According to www.britannica.com it states, “Years later Porter claimed that the Melies film had given him the notion of telling a story in continuity form…:” This led to his film “The Life of an American Fireman” that was about six minutes.Business of Film As the film industry grew, it not only became a source of entertainment, but it was also a business as well. During 1894, the kinetoscopes were marketed from 250-300 dollars a piece. This was a great money maker for Edison, yet the next year sales would go down in the U.S. The following year Edison debuted the vitascope to compete with the Lumiere Brothers cinematographe. As more tools were created productions companies were beginning to sell projectors and films to exhibitors. In 1908 Edison joined several competitors to form the Motion Pictures Patents Company (MPPC) known as Trust. In pg 40 of Silent Movies is states,”Set out to control every aspect of the nascent film…” Trust films only sold to licensed distributors, and licensed exhibitors and only they could use Trust projectors. These licenses produced millions of dollars in fees, a share would go to Edison and Biographie companies. As you can imagine many in the American film industry resented and resisted the Trust. Among these people Carl Laemate was one of them. He led a group of independent film producers in late 1909 to establish the Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP). The IMP would later become universal and join other companies to form a stronger anti-Trust group in 1910. Even though many resented the Trust, some independent film producers adapted the same business tactics as them. It was also around the 1910 when about twenty-six million Americans went to the movies, when the population of the U.s was ninety-two million. Two years after the IMP was created the U.S Department of Justice filed suit against the MPPC or Trust for “restraint of trove.” Thus it was not officially dissolved until 1918, although it was dead as a functioning entity far before then. Since most producers used the sunlight to shoot, most began to move to sunnier climates during winter to keep up production. For a while Florida and Jacksonville looked like it would become a major film center, yer more companies settled in Southern California.

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